One of the reasons why the United States continues to support Israel in the post-Cold War years, lies in the fact that Israel is located in a strategic position within the Middle East, where the continents of Eurasia and Africa meet, close to the Suez Canal which links the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. The Israeli Mediterranean Sea Port of Haifa hosts regular visits of the United States Sixth Fleet and Marine Corps, which is headquartered in Naples, Italy, and the U.S. military has prepositioned material in a number of locations throughout Israel. The U.S. military has also conducted a number of joint exercises with the Israeli military on Israeli soil and territorial waters. According to Mitchell G. Bard, Israel is the one nation in the Middle East which the U.S. military could most rely on to provide ready access to its facilities in an emergency. This assertion has some truth to it since the U.S. largely withdrew its military forces from Saudi Arabia in 2003 at the request of the Saudi government, having been stationed there since the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The U.S. also withdrew all of its troops from Iraq by December 31, 2011, after the U.S. government failed in its negotiations to obtain certain extraterritoriality rights for its military personnel from the Iraqi government. Kuwait has refused in the past to allow the U.S. military forces stationed on its soil permission to launch military strikes against those Iranian nuclear facilities suspected of being involved in efforts to obtain a nuclear bomb capability. Bard writes that Israel during the Cold War served as an important bulwark for the U.S.A. in its campaign to check the spread of Soviet influence in such nations as Syria, Egypt, and Iraq, although after the Iranian Islamic fundamentalist revolution of 1979, Iraq served as an ally against Khomeinis Iran during the protracted Iraq-Iran War of 1980-1988. In addition, Egypt after the Yom Kippur War of 1973 broke its relations with the Soviet Union and moved towards friendlier relations with both the U.S.A. and Israel. See The Evolution of Strategic Cooperation in Jewish Virtual Library, by Mitchell G. Bard. Bard has also written that the Americans and Israelis have on several occasions cooperated in the invention and design of high-tech military equipment. Another political commentator by the name of Norman Finkelstein, writing in Counterpunch, summarized the strategic value of Israel for projecting U.S. military power in the Middle East quite well: 'The claim that Israel has become a liability for U.S. "national" interests in the Middle East misses the bigger picture. Sometimes what's most obvious escapes the eye. Israel is the only stable and secure base for projecting U.S. power in this region. Every other country the U.S. relies on might, for all anyone knows, fall out of U.S. control tommorrow. The U.S.A. discovered this to its horror in 1979, after immense investment in the Shah (i.e. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, overthrown in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalist revolutionaries). On the other hand, Israel was a creation of the West; its in every respect-culturally, politically, economically-in thrall to the West, notably the U.S. This is true not just at the level of a corrupt leadership, as elsewhere in the Middle East but-what's most important-at the popular level. Israel's pro-American orientation exists not just among Israeli elites but also among the whole population. Come what may in Israel, its inconceivable that this fundamental orientation will change. Combined with its overwhelming military power, this makes Israel a unique and irreplaceable American asset in the Middle East.' See Norman Finkelstein, "The Israel Lobby," Counterpunch, May 1, 2006, in Israel, the "lobby," and the United States: The watchdog, not the master, by Sherry Wolf, in International Socialist Review, Issue 52, March-April 2007, note 36. 'Former U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig reportedly called Israel "the largest American aircraft carrier in the world." Without it, the U.S. would have to spend additional tens of billions of dollars to police the Middle East with its own troops.' See Israel, the 'lobby," and the United States: The Watchdog, not the master, note 37, Yoram Ettinger, "Two-way Independence," Yediot Aharonot, quoted by Toufic Haddad, "The Reversal of the AUT boycott," June 1, 2005, Counterpunch. According to the political analyst Martin Kramer, Israel because of its overwhelming military might as a nuclear weapons power keeps the nations of the eastern Mediterranean region quiet, subdued, and militarily harmless for The United States of America, and these nations, all of which Israel shares a border with, are Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Israel's nuclear arsenal according to Matthew Kramer has deterred a large scale Arab-Israeli conflict from breaking out since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. See The American Interest, 21 September, 2006, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, by Martin Kramer. Martin Kramer is The Washington Institute's Koret Distinguished Fellow and author of one of its most widely read monographs, titled Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America.
The book called Code Names by the American military journalist William M. Arkin exposes information about at least five US Army bases at secret locations throughout Israel, including one at Ben Gurion Airport and another in Herzliya Pituah. Arkins book also provides a long list of code names describing joint military operations between Israel and America. Arkin is an independent journalist and military commentator for NBC and a former intelligence analyst for US ground forces. A front-page story in The New York Times, based on one of the books revelations has given the book broad publicity and granted it wide legitimacy. Arkin claims that the officially non-existent War Reserve Stock sites across Israel contain $500 million worth of ammunition the United States keeps in Israel for wartime contingencies. The bases, called Sites 51, 53, 54, 55 and 56 dont appear on any maps and their specific locations are classified and highly sensitive. Its not just munitions, Arkin wrote in the Washington Post before the release of his book. The United States has prepositioned vehicles, military equipment, even a 500-bed hospital, for US Marines, Special Forces, and Air Force fighter and bomber aircraft at least six sites in Israel, all part of what is antiseptically described as US-Israel strategic cooperation. Israel is not the only country in the Middle East to host US military bases, though. There are American military facilities in Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (U.S. troops largely withdrawn from in 2003), Oman, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf states of Bahrain (headquarters of The United States Fifth Fleet, along with Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. See United States Fifth Fleet; Diego Garcia), Qatar, Kuwait, and The United Arab Emirates. See U.S. Military Bases and Facilities in the Middle East, by ASP-American Security Project, Fact Sheet, by Matthew Wallin, June 2018. The late Republican Senator Jesse Helms used to call Israel Americas aircraft carrier in the Middle East, when explaining why the US viewed Israel as such a strategic ally, saying that the military foothold in the region offered by the Jewish State alone justified the military aid that the US grants Israel every year. In addition, the American foreign spy agency, known as the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.), up to a certain extent depends upon Israeli Mossad spies on the ground in the Middle Eastern nations for much of its information pertaining to that region. (See Arutz7 News - January 28, 2004, Top Secret American Military Installations in Israel; American War Reserve Stocks in Israel by Global Security.org; Israel-United States relations).
"In his book Code Names (2005), Arkin writes that some of the American war reserve stock sites in Israel are located at Ben Gurion Airport, Nevatim, the Ovda airbase, and in Herzliya Pituah. Some of the depots are underground, others were built as open hangars. Site 51 holds ammunition and equipment in underground depots. Site 53 is found in the Israeli air-force bases, site 54 is an emergency military hospital near Tel Aviv with 500 beds. Sites 55 and 56 are ammunition depots. A Pentagon study that was publicized in the New York Times in October 1981 stated that the military equipment stored in Israel could reach Western Europe and the Persian Gulf quickly. According to the study, the United States could transfer 70 thousand tons of equipment from Israel to Saudi Arabia within several days. A parallel transfer from the Ras Banas port in Egypt would take 10 days; from Oman, 8 days; Somalia, 2 weeks; Kenya, 22 days; Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean, 27 days; and 77 days from the United States. The distances to Europe are shorter but even here, Israel has a relative advantage: the transfer of equipment from Israel to Munich in Germany takes 11 days, from Egypt, 12 days; from Oman and Somalia, 20 days; and from the United States, 24 days. An American expert who visited Israel in the early 1980s told The New York Times that not only Israel was more technologically advanced than the Arab countries, it could also offer better and cheaper maintenance and medical services than the Americans. Natan Sharoni, former head of the Israeli Planning Directorate of the General Staff, told the Americans that in the event of a war in the Persian Gulf, they could send their wounded to American owned military hospitals in Israel instead of to American bases in Germany." (If War Comes, Will US Open Its Military Depots In Israel?, posted August 20, 2012, by Maariv (Israel), via Al-Monitor.com, Author-Sarah Leibovitz-Dar, Translator-Sandy Bloom). The U.S. since 2008 has deployed a long-range radar site in Israel to give an early warning of any missile strike by Iran. The radar base is located near the Israeli city of Dimona, the latter of which is situated in the Negev Desert, and is operated by 120 American military personnel. See U.S. Bases Powerful Radar in Israel, BBC News, 29 September 2008, 10:01:51 Greenwich Mean Time. The Dimona Radar Facility has two 400 meter (1,300 feet) tall radar towers designed to track ballistic missiles through space and provide ground-based missiles with the targeting data needed to intercept them. Whilst some claim it uses AN/TPY-2 X-band radar, which can detect missiles up to 1,500 miles /2,400 kilometers away, it is worth noting that this radar type does not typically involve a radar tower. The towers are owned and operated by the U.S. military, and provide only second hand intelligence to Israel. The towers of the facility are the tallest towers in Israel, and the tallest used for radar in the world. The Israeli city of Dimona which the American radar site is situated close to is located some 13 kilometers (8.1 miles) to the northwest of the Shimon Peres Negev Nuclear Research Center, which is colloquially known as the Dimona Reactor. According to the Israeli government the Dimona Reactor is used for research purposes into atomic science, but it is widely suspected to be used for the production of nuclear materials that are used in Israel's highly secretive nuclear weapons arsenal.
During the Cold War, Israels nuclear arsenal gave it a qualitative military edge and deterrence over any Soviet proxy state in the region, and today its air force has the potential to partially set back Irans potential nuclear weapons programme, as it did before in its air strike against Iraqs nuclear reactor at Osirak in 1981 (Operation Opera/Operation Babylon; Operation Opera: The Israeli Raid on the Osirak Nuclear Reactor (June 7, 1981), Jewish Virtual Library). In 2007, the Israeli air force destroyed in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria a nuclear reactor suspected of being used for nuclear weapons purposes (Operation Orchard (September 6, 2007). The Saudi government has given permission to the Israeli air force to fly over its territory in any military strike against Iran's nuclear facilities, since it fears the Shiite Muslim theocracy of Persian Iran (see NBC News, June 10, 2:05:19 AM ET, Saudis clear Israel to bomb Iran?). Unlike Iran, Saudi Arabia is a theoretically absolute monarchy and a Sunni Arab Muslim country, although it has a large Arab Shiite minority in its eastern provinces along the Persian Gulf, where most of Saudi Arabias petroleum comes from. In addition, Saudi Arabia belongs to the Arabic language family, whereas the Iranian language belongs to the Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. The Aryans originally lived in the prairies and steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas in eastern Ukraine, southern Russia, and northern Kazakhstan, and from around 1500 B.C. onwards invaded the lands of what are now Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Bangladesh, intermarrying in the process with the previous inhabitants of these countries. The higher castes of India according to DNA tests show a larger minority of Indians with some Eastern European paternal ancestry than those of the middle and lower castes. See in Google Search Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations by Michael Bamshad et.al. and The Origin of the Pre-Imperial Iranian Peoples by Dr. Oric Basirov. The Aryan or Iranian tribes who stayed behind in eastern Ukraine, southern Russia, and northern Kazakhstan became later on assimilated into either the Slavic language family, which is another branch of the Indo-European language group, or by Turkic and Mongol speakers, members of the Ural-Altaic language family. The whistleblowing website Wikileaks in November 2010 leaked various confidential U.S. diplomatic cables pertaining to the USA and its allies which revealed that the Saudi Arabian King Abdullah urged the US to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear weapons programme, describing Iran as a snake whose head should be cut off without any procrastination (Chicago Tribune News, November 29, 2010, WikiLeaks and Iran; The Guardian, Sunday 28 November 2010 20.54 GMT, Ian Black and Simon Tisdall, Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme; Iran-Saudi Arabia relations). The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its first supreme leader, declared that "the concept of monarchy totally contradicts Islam" (Arab-Iran relations). While Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was in power in Iran from 1941-1979, the Iranian and Saudi Arabian absolutist monarchies were united against communism and Islamic theocratic fundamentalism, and both nations shared a border with Iraq, which since the overthrow of its Hashemite monarchy in 1958 had been receiving weapons from the Soviet Union. After the Iranian Islamic revolution of 1979, Saudi Arabia and Iran became bitter rivals for influence and hegemony in the Persian Gulf region (CNN, October 11, 2011, 8:00PM ET, by Michael Rubin, Iran and Saudi Arabia's 'hate-hate' relationship; Ariel Jahner, International Affairs Review. Volume XX, Number 3. Spring 2012, Saudi Arabia and Iran: The Struggle for Power and Influence in the Gulf).
The Arab members of the OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) group retaliated against the American overt strategic airlift, known as Operation Nickel Grass, which delivered weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War of October 6-25, 1973, by placing an oil embargo against the U.S.A., which was lifted on March 17, 1974. U.S. President Richard Nixon agreed to send aid and military supplies to Israel on October 12, 1973 in an operation known as Nickel Grass, because the Soviets had already begun their own large resupply operation of Egyptian and Syrian forces by air and sea. Another motive for the American airlift was that Israel was seriously making preparations for the use of its tactical nuclear weapons, which might have brought the Soviet Union directly into the war. During the latter part of the war, the United States put its nuclear forces on DEFCON 3 alert when the Egyptians requested direct Soviet military intervention and the Soviets responded by placing their armed forces in a state of readiness for intervention. The Egyptians requested Soviet help after the Israelis crossed the Suez Canal into their territory. The Soviets since 1971 have a naval base at the Syrian Mediterranean port of Tartus. See Tartus; Russian naval facility in Tartus-1971; Operation Nickel Grass; Yom Kippur War; The 1973 Yom Kippur War - Jewish Virtual Library, by Mitchell G. Bard; Israel's Nuclear Weapons-Jewish Virtual Library; The Third Temple's Holy of Holies: Israel's Nuclear Weapons by Warner D. Farr, Ltc, U.S. Army, September 1999, note 66, Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1991), pp.230-231; Nuclear weapons and Israel. At the time of the embargo, some 12% of U.S. oil originated from the Middle East, with the figure for Europe being 80%, and over 90% for Japan. See 1973 oil crisis. Since the embargo, the percentage of U.S. oil which comes from the Middle East has remained steady over the years, being a little more than 10% in 2008. See Obama, Gulf Oil and the Myth of Americas Addiction by Afshin Molavi, New America Foundation, The National, The United Arab Emirates, January 21, 2009; U.S. Middle East Policy and Oil - Jewish Virtual Library. Since the early 1990's onwards, the rapidly growing economies of China and India have come to rely more and more upon Middle Eastern petroleum and natural gas. During the Cold War years, Israel, along with Turkey and Iran during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, were important bulwarks against the spread of Soviet influence in the Middle East, which by 1970 had taken the form of large scale Soviet shipment of arms to Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. Turkey and Iran during the Cold War shared a border with the Soviet Union, which dissolved in 1991. As a result of the Arab oil embargo against the U.S.A., Japan and those European nations which depended for a larger proportion of their oil from Middle Eastern sources than the U.S. took a more pro-Arab foreign policy, while the U.S.A., being far less dependent on oil from the Middle East, remained firmly committed to its alliance with Israel. Besides the largely Muslim Middle East and North Africa, the foreign sources of U.S. oil imports include such nations as Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, the United Kingdom, Norway, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, and South Sudan. In 2005, some 36.5% of the oil consumed in the U.S. came from domestic sources. See Ariel Cohen, Ph.D, April 7, 2006, Reducing U.S. Dependence on Middle Eastern Oil, The Heritage Foundation. The U.S. has the potential to produce more petroleum than the oil fields of the Middle East with its reserves of oil shale rock found in the geological Green River Formation, which lies in the states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. However, at present it is cheaper for the U.S. to rely on crude oil from its own domestic deposits as well as from foreign nations, than to extract oil from its oil shale deposits. Oil can also be extracted from coal and oil sands, but the process of doing so, especially from coal, is expensive.
President Richard Nixon was genuinely surprised by the Arab oil embargo and did not expect it. Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban had told Nixon that the Arabs had no other resource but oil to sell as exports, and Nixon himself said that "oil without a market, as Mr. (Mohammad) Mossadegh learned many, many years ago, does not do a country much good," referring to the 1951 nationalization of the Iranian oil industry. In the long run, the Arabs were losing oil revenue by placing an embargo on its sale to the United States, and this was one of the reasons why they lifted the embargo on March 17, 1974, despite the fact that the Israelis by this stage continued to hold most of the Arab territory they had captured in the 1967 Six Day War. Today, Israel continues to occupy large areas of the Palestinian West Bank and the Syrian Golan Heights (Nixon Administration Ignores Saudi Warnings, Bringing On Oil Boycott, by Donald Neff, originally published in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, October/November 1997, Pages 70-72). Only Libya, allied to the Soviet Union, did not lift the embargo, although Iraq and Syria, also allied to the Soviet Union at the time, resumed oil sales to the United States. 'Once oil is in a tanker or refinery, there is no controlling its destination. During the 1973 embargo, for instance, OPEC oil (Arab members) that was exported to Europe was simply resold to the United States or ended up displacing non-OPEC oil that was was diverted to the U.S. market (at a marked up price because of the need to go through European middlemen)....Saudi oil minister Sheik Yamani conceded afterwards that the 1973 embargo "did not imply that we could reduce imports to the United States...the world is really just one market. So the embargo was more symbolic than anything else."' In addition, the Arabs in 2002 only controlled 40% of the world oil market as opposed to 70% in 1973 (An Oil Embargo Won't Work|Cato Institute, by Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren, first published in the Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones, Inc., April 10, 2002). Another motive for ending the oil embargo against the United States was that Saudi Arabia's monarchy needed American weapons to protect it from Iraq which was receiving Soviet weapons at the time, and Iraq shares a large border with Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was staunchly anti-communist during the Cold War. Iraq in 1967 signed an agreement with the Soviet Union to supply the nation with oil in exchange for large-scale access to arms from the Warsaw Pact nations, and in 1972 Iraq and the Soviet Union signed a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, where both countries promised to help each other when under threat and to avoid entering hostile alliances against one another. When Egypt ordered in 1972 the Soviet military personnel to leave its territory, Iraq and Syria became one of the Soviet Union's closest allies in the Middle East. See Iraq-Russia Relations. During the early 1970's the Iraqi Socialist dictatorship of the Ba'ath Party tried to encircle Saudi Arabia with anti-monarchist political forces. It gave military support to the Communist government of South Yemen to the south of Saudi Arabia, as well as to the socialist opponents of the Saudi-sponsored régime in North Yemen to the south east. The socialist Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south of Saudi Arabia also received Iraqi military assistance. After the Iranian Islamist revolution of 1979 and its threat to export radical Shiite theocracy throughout the Persian Gulf, the Sunni Saudi monarchy supported Saddam Hussein's Iraq after Hussein began his war with Iran in 1980. See Joseph McMillan Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil, Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, January 1, 2006, United States Institute of Peace. The Saudis feared a possible Soviet invasion of Iran and Pakistan after they invaded neighbouring Afghanistan from 1979-1989, and Iran was at war with the Soviet allied Iraq from 1980-1988. Iraq was also allied with The United States and Saudi Arabia during its war with Iran in the 1980's. The Iranian Shiite Islamists in the 1980's were hostile both to the atheist Communist Soviets and the pro-Israeli Americans. Today, as previously mentioned, Saudi Arabia needs the protection of the United States from Iran. Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, the Shiite Arab Iraqi majority has ruled Iraq, while before 2003 it was the Sunni Arab Iraqi minority which was in control of the country. The Iranian-speaking Kurds of Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey are Sunnis. Saudi Arabia, a Sunni Muslim Arab nation, was very worried about the role of the Iranian funded Islamist, Shiite Arab Iraqi militias in the fight against Sunni ISIS from 2014 to 2017. The majority of Iranians are Shiite Muslims. President Richard Nixon during the Arab oil embargo of October 1973 to March 1974 seriously contemplated on whether to send in American troops to seize the oil and gas fields of Saudi Arabia, although it was feared by Nixon's Administration that Iraq with the backing of the Soviet Union would militarily invade neighbouring Kuwait in response, which Iraq went on to do in 1990, an event which went on to cause the Iraq-Kuwait or First American Persian Gulf War of 1991, with the Second American Persian Gulf War lasting from 2003 to 2011. See US Plan to Invade for Oil: Secret Memo, in The Age, January 2, 2004, 11.00 a.m., Glenn Frankel reporting from London, Australian Eastern Standard Time, from The Washington Post and The Guardian.
The Baghdad Pact of 1955-1979, also known as CENTO (Cental Treaty Organization) or METO (Middle East Treaty Organization), bound the nations of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, The United Kingdom, and The United States into a defensive alliance aimed at the containment of Soviet military influence in the Middle East. See Baghdad Pact. The Soviet Union outflanked the CENTO nations by finding allies in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, South Yemen, Somalia, and Libya. In 1970, there were 20,000 Soviet troops in Egypt, and Soviet naval bases in Syria, Somalia, and South Yemen. CENTO received a blow in 1958 when Iraq's pro-Western Hashemite monarchy was overthrown, and was further weakened when Turkey invaded northern Cyprus in 1974. The organization was terminated in 1979 after the pro-western Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran was overthrown by Islamist fundamentalists led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The creation of the modern state of Israel was in part the result of British imperial concerns during the First World War, when Britain was still largely dependent on Middle Eastern petroleum imports, a dependence that would last until 1975 when a pipeline linking the United Kingdom to its North Sea oil reserves was completed. The long term motives behind the British policy under the Balfour Declaration of 1917 of allowing Jewish immigration into the League of Nations Mandate of Palestine, were to protect the nearby Suez Canal which formed part of the sea lane to the British colony of India, and the use of Palestine as a terminus for the flow of petroleum from Iraq via Jordan, three former Ottoman Turkish provinces which became British League of Nations mandates in the aftermath of The First World War (1914-1918). The oil flowed along a pipeline which ran from the Iraqi city of Kirkuk, through Jordan, and then onto the Palestinian city of Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea. See Palestine During World War I in Jewish Virtual Library. The Mosul (Iraq) to Haifa (Palestine) oil pipeline operated from 1935 to 1948, and unofficially up until 1954, when the last British troops were withdrawn from Egypt, Jordan, and Iraq, with the British military having been withdrawn from Israel and Palestine in 1948 when Israel regained its independence. This pipeline supplied much of the petroleum needs for the Allied forces operating in the Middle East, Greece, North Africa, Italy, and southern France during The Second World War (1939-1945) (Mosul-Haifa oil pipeline). During Word War Two, the Middle Eastern nations of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Iran were invaded by the Allied forces in order to eject their pro-Axis governments. Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom supported the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine in 1917 because "it would secure post-war British control of Palestine, which was strategically important as a buffer to Egypt and the Suez Canal" (The Balfour Declaration: its origins and consequences, James Renton, Jewish Quarterly, Spring 2008, Number 209; Balfour Declaration of 1917). Palestine would act as a buffer to British controlled Egypt, separating it from the French League of Nations mandates of Lebanon and Syria, territory formerly ruled by the Ottoman Turkish empire. Palestine also connected Egypt with British controlled Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait. When the Turkish Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria on October 31, 1914 during the First World War, Great Britain viewed the Turks as a threat towards Britain's line of communications with India via the Suez Canal. The British strategy then aimed at forming a land bridge between the British protectorate of Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea and the British protectorates of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, The United Arab Emirates, southern Iran, and Oman in the petroleum and natural gas rich Persian Gulf region. In order to create this Middle Eastern land bridge, the Ottoman Turkish provinces of Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq would have to be conquered. These Turkish imperial Arab provinces would enable the rapid deployment of British colonial troops to the Persian Gulf, which at the time were the forward line of defence for British interests in India, and which would also serve as protection from an invasion from the north by Russia. This Middle Eastern land bridge would also serve as an alternative to the Suez Canal, by being able to transport British troops by land from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf, and from the Persian Gulf by naval troop transport ships to India, South East Asia, East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and the South Pacific islands. After David Lloyd George became Prime Minister of Great Bitain in 1916, the British Jewish Legion was formed to assist General Edmund Allenby in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of 1915-1918 waged against the Turks, a military campaign which was also coordinated with the Great Arab Revolt of 1916-1918 against the Ottoman Turks led by Major Thomas Edward Lawrence, who was more famously known as Lawrence of Arabia. Russian Jews had come to regard the German army as a liberator from the rule of Tsarist and pre-Communist Russia, and the formation of the Jewish Legion was intended to encourage the Jews of the world to participate in The First World War on Britain's side (British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument); and see Balfour Declaration of 2 November 1917 by Ken Stein, 2007, CIE (Center for Israel Education).). Before the Cold War of 1945-1991, the Soviet Communists occasionally made alliances of temporary mutual convenience with Eastern European Jewry in their struggle against persecution from at first Tsarist Russia and then Nazi Germany. During the Cold War itself, the Soviets allied with the Arabs against the pro-American Jewish state of Israel, because the atheist amd anti-capitalist Soviet Communists disliked religious and capitalistic Jews. From 1968 until the Iranian Islamist revolution of 1979, Europe obtained a large part of its petroleum supply from the Shahs Iran, and part of the route of transportation between Iran and Europe ran along the Trans-Israel pipeline, which is also known as the Tipline. The Tipline connects the Israeli Mediterranean ports of Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Haifa with the Israeli port of Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba, an inlet of the Red Sea. In 2003, the Russians reached a deal with the Israelis whereby they would supply East Asia with Russian petroleum shipped from the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk via the Tipline (see Trans-Israel Pipeline in Wikipedia; Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company; and EAPC-Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company).
The U.S.A. sometimes used Israel during the Cold War years as a subcontractor of American arms sales, according to Jeff Halper, anthropologist at Ben-Gurion University, coordinator of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, and editor of the Israeli-Palestinian magazine News From Within. Halper says that Israel served as an important conduit or supply pipeline to supply American weapons to those dictatorial nations which during the Cold War had serious human rights violations, and which the U.S. Congress therefore forbade arms sales to. The Israelis would tinker with the American arms imports just enough to pass them off as Israeli arms, and would then resell them to other nations. These nations included such Latin American nations as Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s when there were far-right wing military dictatorships battling pro-Communist and other far-left guerrillas and terrorists during the Cold War era. The Israelis also sold weapons to Apartheid South Africa, even when the openly and former pro-Nazi Germany prime minister Balthazar Johannes Vorster was in power from 1966-1978. See On the Israeli Occupation of Palestine, June3, 2004, Tracked on June 4, 2004 4:04 PM in For the Record. In Chile and other South American nations, several Israeli agents were killed when they tried to arrange the extradition of Nazi German war criminals hiding in a camp called Colonia Dignidad, as well as in other places (Villa Baviera). This fact was revealed on December 22, 1992, by lawyer and human-rights activist Dr. Martín Almada, and judge José Augustin Fernández, in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. Fernández was looking for files on a former prisoner. Instead, he found archives describing the fates of thousands of Latin American leftists ranging from Communists to Social Democrats who had been secretly kidnapped, tortured, and killed by the secret services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay when they were under military dictatorships during the Cold War. These files have come to be known as the Archives of Terror (Spanish Archivos del Terror) (Archives of Terror). The kidnapping in Argentina in 1960 of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann by the Israeli spy agency Mossad caused panic in the American C.I.A. and West German B.N.D. foreign espionage agencies. Eichmann during the Holocaust had worked with Nazi colleagues who later on were hired by the Americans and West Germans to spy on Communist sympathizers and suspected spies in Europe, although some of the Nazis later turned out to be double agents working for the Soviet Union. The Soviets themselves had hired many former Nazis to spy on Western German government officials. Eichmann knew too much, and that is why the Americans and West Germans did not try to extradite him from Argentina, even though they knew he was in hiding there, and even though they had a rough idea of the alias name he was hiding under. See Why Israel's Capture of Eichmann Caused Panic at the CIA in The Guardian, by Julian Borger in Washington, Thursday 8 June 2006, 11:47 AEST; and CIA Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show, The New York Times, by Scott Shane, June 7, 2006. The C.I.A. and certain Vatican clerics who had extremely strong anti-Communist views collaborated after World War Two on occasions in assisting the escape from justice of Nazi and fascist war criminals from former Axis controlled Europe to such South American nations as Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay, Franco's Spain, and the Arab nations of Syria and Egypt (Ratlines (World War II Aftermath) and U.S. Intelligence Involvement with German and Japanese War Criminals After World War II). These escaped Nazi war criminals had worked with American intelligence agencies to provide information on the Soviet Union and would have embarrassed the Americans if brought to trial. Both the American Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) and Simon Wiesenthal have presented evidence of the presence at Colonia Dignidad in Chile of the infamous Nazi concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele, known as the "Angel of Death" (German Todesengel) for his lethal medical experiments on concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust. These war criminals helped in the training of General Augusto Pinochets death squads in the techniques of interrogation and torture of far-left guerrillas and terrorists. See Kissinger, War Criminals in the Bushes and Henry Kissinger. One of the Nazi war criminals hiding in Chile was Walther Rauff, a former navy officer, who during The Second World War was a member of the German Nazi (National Socialist) Party and S.S (Schutz Staffel), and as SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer in the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshaumptamt), was in charge of the manufacture and distribution of gas vans to be used in the extermination of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Communists, Free Masons, the congenitally handicapped and other persons whom the Nazis considered to be undesirable. Walther Rauff may have even have served as an advisor to the Chilean secret police. Augusto Pinochet himself, who ruled as the military dictator of Chile from 1973-1990, had obvious pro-Nazi sympathies, and he had come to power in an American C.I.A. (indirectly) sponsored military coup against the Communist-led coalition government of Salvador Allende Gossens at a time when the Cold War was still a reality. Another Nazi war criminal, Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyons, served both the C.I.A. and the Bolivian military dictatorships in interrogating and torturing left-wing dissidents, guerrillas, and terrorists as part of the American C.I.A. directed, South American counter-insurgency program known as Operation Condor. Klaus Barbie even bragged about helping the C.I.A. and Bolivian military in the capture and execution of the Communist guerrilla leader Ernesto "Che" Guevara in 1967, who, like Barbie, was also a human rights violator. The Communists, with such past dictators as Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, Pol Pot, and the Kim dynasty of North Korea, are in no position to lecture to the Nazis/National Socialists and Fascists in general on democracy and human rights, and vice versa, when one takes into consideration such past Fascist dictators as Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Shogun Hideki Tojo, and Idi Amin Dada. According to Penny Lernoux, Israel in the late 1970s and early 1980s earned more than $1 billion a year selling weapons to the far-right wing military dictatorships in Argentina, Chile and Brazil. "Thus while (Argentine) Jewish newspaper publisher [and human rights advocate] Jacobo Timerman was being tortured by the Argentine military in cells painted with (Nazi) swastikas, three Israeli generals, including the former armed forces chief of staff, were visiting the (Argentine capital) Buenos Aires on a 'friendly mission' to sell arms." (Penny Lernoux, "Israeli Arms Imperil Vital Latin Friendships" in Israel Shahak, Israel's Global Role: Weapons for Repression (Association of Arab-American University Graduates, Belmont, Massachusetts, 1981), pp.15-16, in Israel: The U.S. Watchdog, note 15, by Lance Selfa, International Socialist Review Issue 4, Spring 1998). The Twentieth Century Latin American military dictatorships had great admiration for the fascist régimes of Salazar's Portugal, Franco's Spain, Mussolini's Italy, and Hitler's Germany, partly because of their own Spanish and Portuguese colonial heritage, and also because of the large numbers of Italian and German immigrants who had settled in Latin America. The American use of Israel reminds me of what is written in Daniel 11:34 in the Old Testament: While the killing is going on, Gods people will receive a little help, even though many who join them will do so for selfish reasons. Another reason why the Israelis sold weapons to dictatorial nations was because Palestine, including Israel, the occupied Syrian territory of the Golan Heights, and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, is about 45% desert, when one takes into consideration the Negev Desert in the south. Israel has small mineral resources as well as a limited amount of reasonably well watered farm land, and therefore the money it makes through weapons and munitions exports is quite welcome. Because of these reasons, it is unfair to call past Jewish Israeli government administrations Kapo Jews when considering their arms sales to far-right wing Latin American military dictatorships during the 1970's and 1980's when the Cold War was still a reality. The Kapo Jews were those Jews who collaborated with the Nazis in guarding Jewish concentration camp inmates in return for various priveleges. The greatest insulf a Jew can hurl at another Jew is to call him or her a Kapo Jew. The inefficient communist system, which ignored the free enterprise laws of supply and demand, meant that the Soviet Union until its demise in 1991 was seldom if ever self-sufficient in food production, and was dependent on imported wheat from such countries as The United States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia (1). The Communist system, because it ignored the free market laws of supply and demand, meant that Soviet industry regularly produced shortages and surpluses. The shortages led to inflation in real terms via a black market, and the surpluses led to Soviet factories running at a loss and having to be ultimately subsidized by taxpayers (2). Jesus said that nothing is impossible with God, and God can save a rich man who follows the Ten Commandments, according to Matthew 19:16-26, Mark 10:17-27 and Luke 18:18-27. God's grace can save the rich who do not evade their taxes, earn their money legally, invest their money legally, and give generously to charitable causes (Romans 2:5-11, Ephesians 2:8-10, Galatians 2:10, and II Corinthians 9:6-9). The failure of Communism proves that God would not endorse such a politico-economic system, because God is all-wise or omniscient and is not the God of stupidity. Usury in Old Testament times was the sin of a Jew lending money on interest to a fellow Jew who lived in poverty (Proverbs 28:8, Proverbs 22:26-27, Proverbs 19:17, Proverbs 22:7, Exodus 22:25, Leviticus 25:35-37, and Ezekiel 18:16-17). A Jew was allowed to lend money on interest to a non-Jew according to Deuteronomy 23:20-21. With today's taxation policies in the developed Western World, taxpayers fund social security programs for the needy at home and national government provided foreign aid for the needy abroad. See Christian Communism and Christian Socialism.
One of the unusual alliances which Israel entered into was with the South African Apartheid régime during the Cold War. The Israelis would sell weapons to South Africa in return for uranium yellowcake which was used for Israel's secret nuclear arsenal and energy program. The Israelis also assisted the South Africans in their nuclear weapons development program, which was abandoned when Apartheid ended in South Africa in 1994. See Israel-South Africa Relations. Many nations had placed an arms embargo on Apartheid South Africa. The Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries or OPEC cartel had placed an oil embargo on both Apartheid South Africa and Zionist Israel. The South Africans as a result of the embargo turned to extracting oil from their coal deposits, a process undertaken by the company Sasol, while the Israelis obtained their oil requirements from the non-Arab members of OPEC. The United States throughout most of the history of Apartheid supported South Africa as a bulwark against the Communist régimes of neighbouring Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola, the latter of which bordered the territory of South African controlled Namibia, which achieved independence in 1990. Republican President Ronald Reagan vetoed an attempt by the U.S. Congress to apply economic sanctions on South Africa, a veto which the U.S. Congress managed to overturn with a two-thirds vote in 1986. See South Africa-Relations with the United States, U.S. Library of Congress. An event filled with sickening irony occurred on April 9, 1976, in Israel. South African Prime Minister Balthazar Johannes Vorster, along with his intelligence chief Hendrik van den Bergh, visited Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem. These two men had served as generals of the Ossewa Brandwag, a militant Afrikaner (i.e. South African Dutch) nationalist organization which openly supported Nazi Germany during World War Two. During the Second World War Vorster and van den Bergh had been detained in a South African government camp. These pro-Nazi Afrikaners held a grudge against the British because of the Boer War of 1899-1902, in which Germany at the time had sympathy for the South African Dutch, and because the racist doctrines of Nazi Germany appealed to them. The small majority of the Dutch South Africans supported Great Britain during World War Two, and most of the British South Africans supported the Allied cause. See The Unspoken Alliance: Israel's Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa, by Sasha Polakow-Suransky, Alex Kane in Mondoweiss Net, on December 6, 2013.
Both the Israelis and Americans have found it necessary at times to avoid the word 'genocide' when speaking of the joint Muslim Turkish-Kurdish-Arabic genocide against the Eastern Orthodox Armenian Christians of 1894-1896 and 1915-1918, in order not to offend Turkey, a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ally. During the Cold War Turkey served as an important ally of the United States against the Soviet Union, i.e. the Communist Russian Empire, and against the pro-Soviet Syrians. As mentioned before, the Russians since 1971 have a naval base at the Syrian Mediterranean port of Tartus. In 2015, the Russians began to operate the Syrian air force base known as the Khmeimim Air Force Base for its own air force when President Vladimir Putin entered the Syrian Civil War on the side of the Syrian government led by President Bashar al-Assad. The Russian military forces in Syria have been careful not to have direct armed clashes with the Israeli military during the Syrian Civil War that began in 2011, because the Russians wish to avoid antagonizing Israel's ally The United States of America and thereby possibly spark a nuclear Third World War by miscalculation and escalation, as the Soviet Union wished to avoid before during the Yom Kippur War of 1973 between Israel and the then pro-Soviet Egyptian-Syrian military alliance. Turkey controls both sides of the Bosporus and Hellespont or Dardanelles Strait and the Sea of Marmara in between, which links the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Aegean Sea, thereby monitoring the movements of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The headquarters of the Russian Black Sea Fleet are in the Russian port of Novorossiysk and the port of Sevastopol in the Crimean Peninsula, the latter of which Russia annexed in 2014 from The Ukraine. The Russians had completed a bridge in 2018 across the Strait of Kerch which separates eastern Crimea from The Russian Federation. See Turkey-United States Relations. Since the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 26, 1991, Turkish relations with the United States have cooled. In 2003, the Turks refused to allow the Americans to use their territory to invade Iraq from the north in case it might embolden the Kurds of northern Iraq, and in the current civil war in Syria and Iraq the Turks have attacked the Kurds who are fighting alongside the Americans against the Islamic State or Daesh Muslim militants, as Turkey fears that American assistance to the Kurds in Iraq and Syria might embolden their own Kurdish population in eastern Turkey to breakaway from the Turkish nation. There are also Kurds living in Iran. After Turkey invaded the northern Turkish third of Cyprus in 1974, the U.S. Congress passed an arms embargo on Turkey despite two vetoes from President Gerald Ford, although President James Carter managed to have the embargo lifted in 1977. See 1974 Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. The Greeks had first settled in Cyprus around 1200 B.C., while the Turks first began to arrive in the now Turkish peninsula of Anatolia from Turkmenistan in the 1000's A.D. Anatolia had been part of the Greek speaking world beginning in the 1200's B.C., reinforced by the conquests of the Greek southern Macedonian general Alexander the Great in the 330's B.C. Under the East Roman or Greek Byzantine Empire (395-1453 A.D.), the western and southern parts of Turkey were Greek speaking territories, while the eastern and northern parts were Armenian, Georgian and Kurdish speaking lands. The Byzantine inhabitants of Anatolia gradually adopted the Turkish language and Islamic religion of the Mongoloid Turkish military elite in a process of assimilation called Turkification. The Turkish conquest of Anatolia was assisted by recurrent civil wars in the Byzantine Empire. See List of Byzantine Revolts and Civil Wars and Battle of Manzikert 1071 A.D. The Turks refrained from invading the southern two-thirds of Cyprus because of the presence of British military bases there. Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey are all members of NATO, and the Americans have military bases in all three nations. The Turkish annexation of northern Cyprus in 1974 has some parallels with the division of Ireland into northern and southern regions since 1920, or the French annexation of Corsica in 1768, the latter of which had been a part of the Italian city-state of Genoa-Liguria. The island of Corsica lies closer to Italy than France and is separated by a narrow strait from the Italian island of Sardinia which lies to the south. Ironically enough Cyprus, Corsica, and Ireland are all islands with natural borders. Ronald Reagan was the last American President to call the Turkish crime against the Armenians a genocide. See Here's Why the US Won't Recognize the Armenian Genocide by Jake Flanigan, April 10, 2015, Defense One. Israeli relations with Syria became especially tense after Israel seized the strategically important Golan Heights in the Six Day War of 1967, which is an important source of freshwater for Lake Galilee. In the post-Cold War era Turkey continues to remain a part of NATO, and continues to host American military bases. In the current civil war in Syria and Iraq where the Sunni Muslim Arab fundamentalist rebels known as Daesh, ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), or ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), is trying to establish a theocratic Caliphate based on Sharia law, the Turks support the moderate Sunni Arab Syrian rebels. The Turks do however look with some sympathy upon the efforts by ISIS to crush the Kurds of Syria and Iraq, as Turkey has a large separatist Kurdish population living within its borders. The Syrians in the past have given support to the Kurds of Turkey. The Kurds are divided by the nations of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The Turks are opposed to the Shiite Alawite Muslim dictatorship of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, who is supported by both the Russians and the Iranian Shiite theocracy. One of the bones of contention between Syria and Turkey dates back to the annexation by Turkey in 1938 of the Sanjak or province of Alexandretta in 1938, which the Turks renamed the Province of Hatay. The capital of the province is Antioch. This former area of Syria has a coastline with the Mediterranean Sea. When the Turks annexed this part of Syria they expelled the Alawite Shiite Syrian Arabs and Armenian Eastern Orthodox Christians living there, and resettled the area with ethnic Sunni Muslim Turks. Syria and Lebanon from 1918-1943 was under the control of France as part of the League of Nations mandate territories carved out of the defeated Ottoman Turkish Empire when World War One ended. The French gave way to Turkish pressure in annexing this part of north western Syria in 1938 because they feared the growing military might of Nazi Germany and did not wish to become involved in a two front war with both Germany and Turkey at the same time. Turkey had been an ally of Germany in World War One and was to be a friendly neutral of Nazi Germany for much of World War Two. See Syria-Turkey Relations. The Israelis are opposed to both ISIS and the Syrian dictatorship of Assad, because Assad is a long time supporter of the Shiite Lebanese fundamentalist political party of Hezbollah, and both ISIS and Hezbollah, while enemies of each other, have called for the destruction of Israel. One of the chief reasons why Israel fears to upset the Turks by calling their past atrocities against the Armenians a genocide, despite the fact that the Jews themselves were the victims of Nazi genocide, is due to the fact that Israel currently receives about 40% of its petroleum supply from Azerbaijan via the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which passes through Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey, linking the oil fields of the Caspian Sea with the eastern Mediterranean. See Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline and Why Israel Does Not Recognize the Armenian 'Genocide', by Ishaan Tharoor, The Washington Post, April 24, 2015. Another oil pipeline goes from the Azerbaijaini capital of Baku, located on the shores of the Caspian Sea, to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. See Baku-Novorossiysk Pipeline. This latter pipeline partly explains why Russia was reluctant to back Armenia militarily in its 2020 war against Azerbaijan over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, unlike the last Armenian-Azerbaijani War of 1991-1994 when Russia was more enthusiastic in militarily backing up Armenia. Turkey supports the Turkic-speaking nation of Azerbaijan in its dispute with Armenia over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, located inside Azerbaijan. The Russians have been the traditional defenders of the Armenians against the Turks. The Azerbaijanis are mostly Shiite Muslims, while their Turkish cousins belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. The Turks arrived in Turkey from Turkmenistan via Iran in the 1000's A.D., while the Armenians arrived in Armenia from the prairies north of the Black Sea from around 2000 B.C. onwards. The Kurds, an Iranian speaking people, arrived in Iran around 1500 B.C. from the prairies of southern Russia and eastern Ukraine. Both Armenian and Kurdish are members of the Indo-European language family, while Turkish belongs to the Ural-Altaic language family. Although Kurds are Iranians, they are Sunni Muslims, while most of the rest of the Iranians are Shiite Muslims. The Turks in World War One were allied with Germany against their old Russian rivals, and in World War Two there was a faction of Turkish politicians and military men who wanted to ally with Germany against the Soviet Union, hoping to extend Turkey's boundaries into the Turkic Soviet republics of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Turkey throughout World War Two maintained a friendly so-called "neutrality" with Nazi Germany, much as Argentina did at the same time, and Turkish chrome deposits used in making high quality steel were exported to Nazi Germany. The Turkish capital of Istanbul harboured many Nazi German spies. Turkey signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Nazi Germany on June 18, 1941, four days before the Germans launched the invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa on June 22. Not until late in the war when the defeat of Nazi Germany was assured did Turkey break off diplomatic relations with Germany in August 1944, followed by a declaration of war against Germany in February 1945, although no Turkish troops ever fought in World War Two. See History of the Republic of Turkey. When Adolf Hitler was about to invade Poland in 1939 he asked his generals rhetorically "who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?" To Turkey's credit, many Jews from the Balkans and the Soviet Union found sanctuary in Turkey during The Second World War. The President of Turkey during World War Two, İsmet İnönü, refused to join Nazi Germany in the war against the Communist Soviet Union because he was reluctant to see Turkey suffer as she had done so in the years between 1911-1922 when Turkey was involved at first in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911, then the First Balkan War of 1912, followed by the Second Balkan War of 1913, then the First World War of 1914-1918, followed lastly by the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922. See Second Cairo Conference of 1943. The Nazis wished to use Turkey as a means of transporting its troops from the Balkans in order to seize the oil fields of the Middle East, a large portion of which was under British colonial or semi-colonial control at the time. The Nazis also hoped to invade the oil fields of the Middle East by crossing the Caucasus mountains of the Soviet Union which lay to the north, and by advancing from Libya to the west through Egypt and the Suez Canal.
There is an undercurrent of anti-semitism and anti-judaism in Turkey, mainly found in Islamist and ultra-nationalist political parties. The sources of anti-semitism in Turkey have some historical descent from the pro-Nazi Germany factions within segments of the Turkish political and military cliques from the Second World War era. Many of the antisemites in Turkey are a combination of Islamist, Pan-Turkic, and Neo-Ottoman ideologues. See Antisemitism in Turkey. Although Turkey and Israel were allies in the Cold War era, mainly directed against their mutual enemy Syria which was allied with the Communist Soviet Union, as was also Egypt and Iraq, relations between Turkey and Israel have gradually soured in the post-Cold War era. Since 2002 the mildly Islamist Justice and Development Party has ruled Turkey either on its own or in a coalition. The Turkish initials of the party are AKP, which stands for Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi. This social conservative party stands ideologically for Neo-Ottomanism, conservative democracy, and economic liberalism. The party has been described as "a broad right-wing coalition of Islamists, reformist Islamists, conservatives, nationalists, centre-right, and pro-business groups" by Soner Çagaptay in the article "Popularity Contest-The Implications of Turkey's Local Elections", published on 7 May 2014 in Jane's Islamic Affairs Analyst. Its party leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who since 2003 has been at times the prime minister or president of Turkey, has on occasions made anti-semitic and anti-zionist remarks, some of them justified, i.e. criticism of Israel's policy of building Jewish settlements in the Palestinian West Bank and disproportionate use of force against Palestinian Hamas terrorists in the Gaza Strip. At other times he has made unfair anti-semitic comments drawn from anti-Jewish conspiracy theories. While a university student, Erdoğan acted in a play about a joint Freemason-Communist-Jewish conspiracy aimed at world domination. The far-right, neo-fascist Turkish Nationalist Movement Party, also known as the Nationalist Action Party, has even more stridently spoken in public its belief in Jewish world domination conspiracy theories. The party's initials in Turkish are MHP, which stands for Miliyetçi Hareket Partisi. The party's ideology stands for Turkish nationalism, Pan-Turkism, right-wing populism, euroscepticism, and ultranationalism. Although the party originally began as a secularist party, since the 1990's it has moved closer in sympathy towards Islamism. The party has strongly opposed the peace negotiations of the AKP with Kurdish separatists, and has criticized the AKP for being corrupt. Nevertheless, the MHP has either openly or covertly helped the AKP in situations such as the 2007 presidential election, in the repeal of the headscarf ban, and in the June-July 2015 parliamentary speaker elections. The MHP also shares in Erdoğan's denial of the Armenian genocide. The MHP's paramilitary wing known as the Grey Wolves (organization), received during the late 1970's covert support from the Turkish military and intelligence organizations, as well as from the American Central Intelligence Agency, in forming death squads which carried out assassinations of far-left, pro-communist Turkish terrorist groups supported by Soviet secret agents in Turkey. Turkey during the 1970's suffered from high inflation alternating with high unemployment, much as Iran also suffered from at the same time before the Iranian Islamist Revolution of 1979. When the Turkish military seized power from the civilian government in 1980, it banned all political parties in Turkey, including the MHP and Grey Wolves, some of whose members were imprisoned for a while. Civilian rule returned to Turkey in 1983. An MHP party member called Agâh Oktay Güner noted that their party's ideology was in power under the military dictatorship while many of its members were in prison, as were also many Turkish communists at the same time. Both the Turkish military and Grey Wolves were extremely anti-Communist during the Cold War. During the 1991-1994 war between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, the Grey Wolves sent its members to fight on the Azerbaijani side while the Armenians received help from their old Russian protectors. The Pan-Turkic MHP and Grey Wolves, and the Neo-Ottoman AKP, also worry the Iranians, since they aim to unite the Turkic Azerbaijainis and the Azerbaijani peoples of northwestern Iran, who make up about 16% of Iran's population according to the CIA World Factbook entry for Iran for the year 2012, with Turkey. The Iranians since the end of the Cold War in 1991 have forged close links with the Russians. Before the 1990's, the Iranians had a rivalry with the Russians, and were indeed invaded by the Russians on several occasions in the 1800's and 1900's, both under the rule of the Czars and then under the Communists. The last time Russia occupied Iran was from 1941-1946 in collaboration with the British and Americans during World War Two. Iran seved as a conduit or supply pipeline for American and British arms transported from the Middle East for Soviet Russia while it was engaged in a titanic struggle with Nazi Germany. Under the rule of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi from 1941-1979, Iran was against Communist Russia, and under the rule of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from 1979-1989, Iran was against both the United States because it had given support to both the Shah and Israel, and was also against Communist Russia because Islam is against Communist atheism, and because Islamism or Islamic fundamentalism supports heavily government regulated capitalism, i.e. the kind of capitalism which Nazi or National Socialist Germany, Fascist Italy, and militarist Japan supported in the Axis alliance of 1936-1945. See Iran-Russia Relations. The Iranian Islamist theocracy is also quite sympathetic to the anti-semitism that was preached by Nazi Germany, and ironically the anti-Zionism that was espoused by the Communist Soviet Union. Four facts divide Turkey and Iran, and especially since the Iranian Islamist Revolution of 1979. Turkey currently is a multi-party democracy while Iran is an authoritarian theocracy ruled according to Sharia law, with only Islamist political parties allowed to operate legally in Iran. Turkey is mainly Sunni Muslim while Iran is largely Shiite Muslim. The Turkish language belongs to the Ural-Altaic language family while Iranian or Indo-Aryan is a member of the Indo-European language family. When the Turks invaded Turkey from Turkmenistan via Iran in the 1000's A.D. they intermarried with the previous inhabitants, and when the Aryans invaded Iran in the 1500's B.C. from southern Russia and the eastern Ukraine they also intermarried with the previous inhabitants. Turkey is an old rival of Russia, while Iran since the end of the Cold War in 1991 has become an ally of Russia, although it too was once an old rival of Russia.
The Evangelical branch of the Protestants in the United States, who in 2015 made up about 25% of the American population, support the doctrine of Christian Zionism, which states that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ as the Parousia cannot happen until the Jews are restored to the land of Israel in Palestine from their exile in the Diaspora, and when they convert to Christianity en masse, in order to fulfill Biblical prophecy (Matthew 23:37-39, Luke 13:34-35, Matthew 21:42-46, Romans 9-11, Zechariah 12:10, John 19:31-37, Revelation 1:7, Zechariah 12-14, Ezekiel 38-39, Ezekiel 47-48, Revelation 22, Revelation 4:6). However, Mark 16:15-16 implies that those generations of Jews who died before the Second Coming of Christ without having converted to Christianity will go to hell. The American Evangelicals tend to vote more for the Republican Party, and less so for the Democrats. They tend to be concentrated in the Bible Belt of the South Eastern United States, which is where the Ku Klux Klan and American Nazi or National Socialist Party has its greatest support. The Ku Klux Klan and their Nazi allies are anti-Black African American, anti-Jewish, anti-Roman Catholic, anti-Communist, and anti-homosexual. They base their beliefs on such biblical passages as I John 2:22-23, I John 4:1-3, The Gospel of John 14:6, Mark 16:15-16, II Thessalonians 2, Revelation 12-13, Revelation 17-18, Galatians 4, Revelation 11:8, Revelation 2:9, Revelation 3:9, Romans 9:6-7, Galatians 3, I Thessalonians 2:14-16, Matthew 27:15-26 (n.b. Luke 23:34), Mark 10:27, Ephesians 2:8-10, Genesis 9:18-29, Genesis 10, I Corinthians 6:9-10, Matthew 10:1-33, Luke 10:1-20, John 19:1-16, Matthew 3:7-9, and John 8:42-45. Although it is true that the Romans actually crucified Jesus Christ, they were pagans or polytheists at the time, and they eventually converted to Christianity, unlike the large minority of Jews. It was the unbelieving Jews who chose to set Barabbas rather than Jesus free from crucifixion when given the choice by Pontius Pilate, because they were not convinced that Jesus was the messiah whose coming had been prophesied on a number of occasions in the Old Testament. Christopher J. Probst, author of Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany, (Published by Indiana Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2012), a visiting professor of modern European history at Saint Louis University, and a former Charles H. Revson Fellow at the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has shown in his book that "a significant number of German theologians and clergy made use of the 1500's writings by Martin Luther on Jews and Judaism to strengthen the racial antisemitism and religious anti-Judaism already present among German Protestants. Drawing attention on major persons, Probst's study shows that a large number of pastors, bishops, and theologians of varying theological and political persuasions used Luther's texts with significant effectiveness in agitating for the creation of a "de-Judaized" version of Christianity. Probst shows that even that part of the Protestant church most critical of Luther's anti-Jewish writings agreed with the antisemitic stereotyping that assisted in justifying early Nazi measures against the Jews." See Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany. Martin Luther in 1543 published a rabidly anti-Jewish, even anti-Semitic theological treatise called On the Jews and Their Lies, some 65,000 words long, in which Luther in a fit of anger even wrote that Christians were at fault for not slaying the Jews. This is part of what Martin Luther wrote in the conclusion to his treatise On the Jews and Their Lies (1543):
There is no other explanation for this than the one cited earlier from Moses - namely, that God has struck [the Jews] with madness and blindness and confusion of mind. (Deuteronomy 28:28). So we are even at fault in not avenging all this innocent blood of our Lord and of the Christians which they shed for three hundred years after the destruction of Jerusalem, and the blood of the children they have shed since then (which still shines forth from their eyes and their skin). We are at fault in not slaying them. (Luther, Martin. On the Jews and Their Lies, Translated Martin H. Bertram, in Luthers Works (Philadelphia: Fortess Press, 1971), 47:267.)Luther is recorded for having said on other occasions that the Jews should be slain. When Luther was asked whether it would be justifiable to box the ears of a Jew, he said "Certainly. I for one would smack him on the jaw. Were I able, I would knock him down and stab him in my anger. It is lawful, according to both the human and the divine law, to kill a robber; then it is even more permissible to slay a blasphemer." Luther went on to say that "if I had to baptise a Jew, I would take him to the bridge of the Elbe (river), hang a stone round his neck and push him over with the words 'I baptise thee in the name of Abraham.'" (Luther said that he would drown a Jew who came to him to be baptised a Christian but was not sincere in wanting to convert to Christianity, according to Luther's Table Talk, first published in Germany in 1566 by one of his disciples, some 20 years after Martin Luther's death in 1546). Luther even declared that "the Jews deserve to be hanged on gallows seven times higher than ordinary thieves." See Peter F. Wiener, Martin Luther: Hitler's Spiritual Ancestor, Part 3: Luther's Political Doctrines - Luther and the Jews, Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, London, New York, Melbourne, Sydney, published online by Patsy Jackson for Tentmaker Ministries, Hermann, Missouri, U.S.A. Professor Richard (Dick) Geary, former Professor of Modern History at the University of Nottingham, England, and author of Hitler and Nazism (Routledge 1993), published in the journal History Today (October 1, 1998, vol.48, Issue 10, pages 8-14), an article titled Who voted for the Nazis? (electoral history of the National Socialist German Workers' Party), in which he has shown that the Nazis or National Socialists gained disproportionately more votes from the Protestant than Catholic regions of Germany, in elections held from 1928 to 1932. The Protestants are found mainly in northern and eastern Germany while the Catholics tend to be located in southern and western Germany. Jörg L. Spenkuch and Philipp Tillman in a statistical study called Elite Influence? Religion and the Electoral Success of the Nazis show that after the Catholic bishops of Germany gave up their opposition to Adolf Hitler following the passage of the Enabling Act on March 23, 1933, and the signing of a concordat between Nazi Germany and the Roman Catholic Church on July 20, 1933, the Nazis saw a huge increase in votes from the Catholic regions of Germany in elections, plebiscites, and referendums held under the Third Reich. After the Reichskonkordat of July 20, 1933, German cities with larger Catholic populations tended to see more attacks on synagogues, more deportations of Jews, and more letters to the official Nazi newspaper known as Der Stürmer. Before the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave Hitler dictatorial powers, and before the signing of the concordat, the Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy in Germany was strongly opposed to both the Nazis and the Communists, while the German Protestant ministry was officially neutral towards the Nazis, although it too was opposed to the Communists. After the German federal election of March 5, 1933, in which the National Socialist German Workers' Party or Nazi Party gained 43.9% of the popular vote, the predominantly Protestant German National People's Party and German Catholic Centre Party formed an anti-Communist, anti-Social Democratic coalition government with the Nazis which lasted until 14 July 1933, when all political parties except the Nazi Party were banned in Germany. The earliest converts to Christianity were Palestinian Jews and Greco-Roman pagans. After the Arab Muslims invaded Palestine in the 630's A.D, the Aramaic and Greek speaking Byzantine Eastern Orthodox Christians in Palestine began to convert increasingly to Islam, and adopted the Arabic language. By the time the British seized control of Palestine from the Ottoman Turks in 1917 during World War One, only a minority of Palestinians were Christians, and even a smaller minority were Jews, the latter located mainly in the region of Galilee. The West Bank hill country also had a minority of Jews of the Samaritan sect. If Islam had never come into existence, it is likely that the Middle East and North Africa would be at least nominally Christian to this day, and therefore the Jewish State of Israel, founded on confiscations from Palestinian Arab Muslims, would never have been created. Today there are Jewish Christians called Hebrew Catholics, Messianic Jews, and Jews for Jesus, who believe in Jesus Christ as the Messiah but observe Jewish religious holidays. Many Israeli Jews regard Jewish Christians as traitors to Judaism. The Apostle Saint Paul is mentioned in passing as observing the Jewish religious holiday of Pentecost, Weeks or Shavuot according to the New King James Version of the Bible (The Acts of the Apostles 18:21, 20:6, 20:16, I Corinthians 16:8, I Corinthians 9:20-21, I Corinthians 10:32-33), and Jesus Christ at the Last Supper with His 12 Apostles on the night before His crucifixion observed the Jewish religious holiday of the Passover or Pesach (Matthew 26:17-25, Mark 14:12-25, Luke 22:1-23, John 13, and I Corinthians 11:23-34), is recorded in The Gospel of John, chapter 7, to have observed the Jewish religious festival of the Tabernacles or Sukkot, and to have observed the Jewish festival of Dedication or Hannukah according to John 10:22-23. The current position of the Roman Catholic Church is not to actively try to seek the conversion of Israel to Christianity, believing that it will happen in the last days leading up to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ as the Parousia, althought the Baptists believe in missionary campaigns of conversion to the Jews, basing their standpoint on Christ's commission to the apostles to preach and baptize in His name to all the peoples of the Earth (Matthew 28:18-20, Mark 16:15-20, Luke 24:46-49, The Acts of the Apostles 1:6-8, and Romans 10:6-17). The Samaritans who live in the former northern, ancient Jewish kingdom of Israel, have been revealed to be of mixed Jewish and Assyrian-Mesopotamian ancestry according to DNA or genetic testing. When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 721 B.C. they deported many of the wealthier Israelites and left behind the poorer Israelites, and the latter group intermarried with subject peoples of the Assyrian Empire who settled in Israel, which after 721 B.C. came to be known as Samaria (Assyrian Captivity or Exile). After the Babylonian Empire became supreme in the ancient Middle East, the southern Jewish Kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians between 597-586 B.C., and again the wealthier Jews were deported while the poorer ones were left behind. After the Babylonians were conquered by the Persian-Iranian Zoroastrians in 539 B.C., the Jews living in exile throughout the former Babylonian imperial provinces were allowed by their new Persian masters to return to Judea if they so wished (Babylonian Captivity or Exile). From 66-136 A.D. the Jews of Roman Palestine fought three failed wars of independence against their Roman masters, and at the end of each war a large part of the Palestinian Jewish population was killed in combat, died of starvation and disease, or were sold into slavery, both in Israel and in the other provinces of the Roman Empire. The Jews who survived in Palestine came to form a minority in their own country, outnumbered by the Samaritans, whom the Jews regarded as half-caste Jewish heretics, Greco-Roman pagans or the descendants of Jews who had converted to Greco-Roman paganism, and by Christians, many of whom were converts from Judaism or Greco-Roman paganism (Jewish-Roman Wars). The Jewish minority in Palestine came to be largely concentrated in the Galilee region, where they continued to live until the reestablishment of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948 (Continuous Jewish Presence in the Holy Land (with Maps). After Christianity was declared the official state religion of the Roman Empire in 392 A.D., Greco-Roman paganism entered into a rapid terminal decline towards extinction, especially in the East Roman or Byzantine provinces, and after the Arab Muslim conquest of Palestine in the 630's A.D., many of the Palestinian Jews, Samaritans, and Christians began to convert to Islam in increasing numbers. Some historians believe that the number of Palestinan Jews who died as a result of the Roman-Jewish wars as given by ancient sources were inaccurate exaggerations, as ancient sources often are. The Jews believed in one God, called Yahweh, who was served by a huge number of subordinate angels of various ranks, and who was opposed by a host of fallen, rebellious angels or demons led by the former archangel or cherub Satan (Isaiah 14 and Ezekiel 28). The Romans believed in the supreme sky god Jupiter/Iuppiter or Diespiter/Dyeus-Phater/Deus-Zeus, whom the Roman Emperors claimed to be sons of, and who ruled over many gods and goddesses of lower rank who had dethroned an earlier generation of deities known as the Titans. See List of Angels in Theology and List of Theological Demons or Rebel, Fallen Angels. The Jews were influenced by the Persian Zoroastrians when they ruled Palestine from 539-332 B.C. with their concept of an all-good, supreme God called Ahura Mazda (compare with Yahweh), an all-evil god called Angra Mainyu or Ahriman (compare with the archangel or chrub Satan), the war-god Mithras (compare with the archangel Michael, Revelation 12), the Saoshyant (Messiah), Spenta Mainyu (compare with Ruah Ha-Kodesh, the Hebrew name for the Holy Spirit), and the sacred fire from heaven (compare with Revelation 8:1-5, Isaiah 6:1-7, The Acts of the Apostles 2:1-4, Luke 3:16-17, Mark 9:49, Luke 12:49-50, I Corinthians 3:10-17, II Peter 3:10-13, Revelation 20:9-15, Hebrews 1:7 and Hebrews 12:29). Zoroastrianism, like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, has a Last Day of Judgement and the end of the world or eschatology. See Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity by Hannah M.G. Shapero, 9/6/1997. In 332 B.C., the pagan or polytheist Greek southern Macedonians conquered Persian Palestine. There are nine orders of angels mentioned in both the Old and New Testament of the Bible, and they rank as follows in order of importance from first to last: seraphim, cherubim, thrones, dominations or dominions, virtues, powers, principalities, archangels, and angels. Palestine or Canaan in the ancient world lay on an important intersection of trade or caravan routes of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, linking the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Kush with Phoenicia, Assyria, Babylonia, Sumeria, and Persia. The Fertile Crescent of the Middle East comprised the valleys of the Nile, Jordan, Litani, Orontes, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers, as well as the originally forested mountains, hills, and coastal plains of the Levant. The Levant today consists of the modern nations of Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, and the parts of these nations which face the Mediterranean Sea have subtropical dry climates with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, and are covered with such trees as Cedars of Lebanon and Cypresses on the uncleared parts of hills and mountains. Palestine forms a natural land bridge connecting the continents of Africa and Eurasia (Ezekiel 5:5, Ezekiel 38:12, and Daniel 11:34). See Via Maris (The Way of the Sea), The Ancient King's Highway, and The Fertile Crescent.
The one communist federation that The United States and Western Europe did support during the Cold War years was Yugoslavia, because it was expelled by the Soviet Union from the Cominform and Informbiro nations of Eastern Europe after its leader Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) refused to follow Stalin's orders on how it should handle its foreign affairs and economic policy (Tito-Stalin Split). The other Eastern European states were firmly under the grip of the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, along with such nations as Egypt and India, belonged to the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), neither part of the American or Soviet bloc of nations, although they were happy to take foreign assistance from both sides of the Cold War. During the Cold War Yugoslavia formed a cheap bulwark for NATO, preventing the Warsaw Pact nations from gaining access to the Adriatic Sea, while at the same time Greece and Turkey blocked a land access to the Aegean Sea. Beginning in 1951, the United States began to supply Yugoslavia with weapons and economic aid (United States gives military and economic aid to communist Yugoslavia (November 14, 1951) in www.history.com; U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949). American relations with Tito's Yugoslavia cooled for a while after Tito gave diplomatic and military support to the Soviet Union when it sided with Syria and Egypt in their war with Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and Tito is alleged to have supported the Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal, as well as the pro-Palestinian, Communist, Venezuelan terrorist nicknamed Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramírez Sánchez). Tito did however allow the sale of weapons and munitions to many right-wing, anti-Communist Latin American military dictatorships supported by the United States, with the exception being Augusto Pinochet's Chile (Yom Kippur War and Military Dictatorship of Chile (1973-1990)). When the Yugoslav wars of independence began in June 1991, the United Nations Security Council put an arms embargo on Yugoslavia in September 1991, which had little effect on Serbia because it enjoyed the lions share of the federation's weaponry. It also was supplied by the Soviet federation after the arms embargo went into effect, even after the Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991 (Yugoslav Wars). The U.N. arms embargo on Yugoslavia was poorly enforced, much to the relief of the non-Serb Yugoslavs, and the nations of Bulgaria, Ukraine, Poland, Romania, Russia, North Korea, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Chile sold arms to the warring Yugoslav ethnic groups. The Western nations feared that the wars in Yugoslavia would spread to the other Balkan nations, as they had done so during the two Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, because Yugoslavia had minorities from the nations it bordered with. The First World War had begun in Bosnia-Herzegovina with the assassination of the Archduke of Austria and the heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand, on June 28, 1914, at the hands of Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb nationalist (Balkan Wars of 1912-1913). The Russians at the time supported Serbia, and during the early stages of the 1990's Yugoslav Wars, the West feared that Russia would intervene again on behalf of Serbia. In October 1944 the Soviets liberated the Yugoslav and Serbian capital Belgrade, before withdrawing their forces into Hungary in March 1945 (The Soviet Belgrade Offensive of 1944). The German forces in Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia had begun withdrawing westwards towards Germany and Austria, united since 1938, from late 1944 onwards, ahead of the advancing Soviet Red Army. The Soviet Union had sent its military to invade Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, and Afghanistan in 1979. The Russians withdrew their occupation forces from Eastern Europe in several stages between 1991-1994.
When President Bill Clinton became President of the United States in 1993, the United States began to send arms to the Croatians and Bosnian Muslims, at first secretly, and then openly from 1995 onwards. The United States, along with the United Kingdom and France, also used their air forces in 1995 against Serbian military targets, thereby thwarting the Serb's attempts to create a Greater Serbia by means of ethnic cleansing. When the Yugoslav Wars began in 1991, the Serbs formed 12% of the population of Croatia, and 32% in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the Muslim's share being 44%, and the Croat's 20% (Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The Bosnian Muslims trace their ancestry to those Serbs and Croats who converted to Islam when the Ottoman Turks conquered and ruled the Balkans. The rest of the Bosnians were either Montenegrins or Albanians. Some 78% of the population of Croatia were ethnic Croats in 1991, with the rest, apart from the Serbs, being either Hungarians, Italians, Slovenes, or Austrian-Germans. In Serbia, the Serbs formed about 75% of the population, with the rest made up of Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Bulgarians, Slavic northern Macedonians, Albanians, and Montenegrins. At the height of their power during the 1990's, the Serbs occupied some 33% of the area of Croatia, and 70% of the area of Bosnia-Herzegovina. When the Kosovo War began in late 1998, the ethnic Albanians formed some 90% of the province's population. The Albanians trace their ancestry to the ancient Thraco-Illyrians, while the rest of the population of the former Yugoslavia are Slavic in language and culture, if mostly Albanian in genetic ancestry according to D.N.A. testing. The Slavic warrior elite arrived in the mountainous Balkans in the early 600's A.D. from southern Poland, Slovakia, Czechia, and eastern Germany, imposing their languages on the Thraco-Illyrians. In much the same way it was once thought that the Germanic Anglo-Saxon invaders intermarried little with the inhabitants of Roman England, until D.N.A. testing by Oxford University Professor and geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer proved that most of the English people are of non-Indo-European but racially Caucasian, prehistoric Basque ancestry, with some descent from the Indo-European Celts, Belgians, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Scandinavians or Vikings, and Normans who arrived later (Myths of British Ancestry). Stephen Oppenheimer published his findings in the book The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story (Constable & Robinson Ltd, London, hardcover 2006, paperback 2007). Bryan Sykes, another Oxford University Professor of Genetics, came to somewhat similar conclusions, as set out in his book Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland (W.W. Norton & Company, New York and London, hardcover 2006, paperback 2007), published in The United Kingdom as Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History. The Romanians trace their ancestry to the Dacians, whom the Romans conquered in the early 100's A.D., because the Romans coveted the valuable gold mines of what is now Romania. The Dacians belonged to the ancient Thracians, linguistic cousins of the Illyrians. The Magyars or Hungarians came to the area that is now Hungary as a horse archer elite from either the western Siberian region of Bashkiria in the 890's A.D., or the tribal lands of the Madjars in Kazakhstan, intermarrying with the previous Indo-European speaking Slavic, Celtic, and Illyrian inhabitants of the Hungarian-Danubian Plain. Before they were conquered by the Hungarians and Ottoman Turks, Croatia and Serbia were independent nations and kingdoms. Yugoslavia, with the Kingdom of Serbia in the driver's seat, did not come into existence until after The First World War ended in 1918, and was dismembered by the Germans, Italians, Hungarians, and Bulgarians during The Second World War from 1941-1945 (World War Two in Yugoslavia), and then existed again for the second time as a Communist federation from 1945-1991, again under Serbian domination, much as Russia dominated the Tsarist Empire of 1547-1917, and then the communist federation of the Soviet Union from 1917-1991. The Scandinavian Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians were united at various times in their history, before breaking apart as the Yugoslavs and Soviets were to do later. See An Ethnographic History of the Balkans.
The United States even for a while, beginning during the presidency of Richard Nixon, supported the Romanian Communists under Nicolae Ceauçescu, who resented Russia's control over a part of the Romanian speaking region of Moldova, gained by the Russians in 1939 as part of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, known also as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Romania under Roman imperial rule was known as the province of Dacia (106-271 A.D.), and the rich Dacian gold mines attracted many Romans to settle in the partly mountainous and heavily forested Romania (Roman Dacia and Trajan's Dacian Wars). Nicolae Ceauçescu extended diplomatic recognition to both the Jewish State of Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization or P.L.O. of Yasir Arafat. For a while the Americans, beginning during the Richard Nixon administration, supported China against Russia, before the Cold War in Europe ended in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Tsarist Russians had seized Chinese territory north of the Amur River and east of the Ussuri River in 1860. Chinese and Russian troops had armed clashes over an island in the frozen Ussuri River in March 1969. In 1966, the Soviet Union signed a mutual defense pact with Mongolia, and the Soviets had military bases in Outer Mongolia until 1992. The Chinese have a province called Inner Mongolia which borders Outer Mongolia. Tsarist Russia had annexed Outer Mongolia in 1913. The Chinese and Soviet Communists had split from each other in the early 1960's when Chairman Mao Zedong accused Russia of becoming soft towards the Capitalist West after Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1956 announced a policy of peaceful coexistence with the West, a policy that abandoned the attempt to spread the ideology of Communism to other nations by armed force. In 1960 the Russians ended technical assistance to China, and in 1962 the Russians refused to support the Chinese in their border war with India. During the Second Vietnam War of 1957-1975, the Chinese would requisition up to a half of the armaments sent by the Soviet Union to North Vietnam over Chinese railways (Sino-Soviet Split). China fought a brief border war with Vietnam in 1979. Today, Russia has largely abandoned Communist economics, and China and Vietnam with each passing year are becoming increasingly more free enterprise nations, even if politically they remain communist one-party state dictatorships for the time being. Perhaps as the Chinese and Vietnamese middle class grow, China and Vietnam will become increasingly more ready for a process of gradual democratization over many successive generations, with the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties transforming themselves into center-left or even centrist political parties. Under President Vladimir Putin, Russia remains an imperfect, authoritarian, guided democracy. In international politics there are no permanent friends, and no permanent enemies. If The United States depended on 90% of its petroleum needs from Middle Eastern sources, instead of about 10% as it has now for some decades, and if the Arab Persian Gulf states did not fear at first pro-Soviet Ba'athist Iraq and then theocratic, post-1979 Islamist, Persian Iran, and thereby need American military protection as a result, then the United States would have placed economic sanctions on Israel for its occupation of the Palestinian West Bank and the Syrian Golan Heights a long time ago. Then again The United States might have militarily seized the Persian Gulf States if it depended on 90% of its petroleum needs from that region. The United States already has military bases in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, The United Arab Emirates, and to a limited extent since 2003 in Saudi Arabia. The American military occupation of Iraq from 2003-2011, based on as it turned out the false assumption that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction, turned out to be costly in lives and money for The United States. In order to hold permanently the oil and gas fields of the Middle East in the face of public anger over the loss of American lives and taxes which would result from a military occupation, The United States would have to cease being a democracy and would need to become a military dictatorship. Perhaps the world will one day end its dependence on such fossil fuels as petroleum, natural gas, and coal for its energy needs. Currently hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen powered electricity stations (see Hydrogen Economy), and electric cars are in the experimental or early stages of development. Nuclear fusion remains a future possibility, and the electricity generated by nuclear fusion could help to power electric cars. Solar power, wind power, tidal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, and geothermal power are other sources of energy currently available. The physicist Bernard Cohen in 1983 claimed uranium deposits extracted from sea water can last as long as the Sun, especially when used in nuclear fast breeder reactors. Currently uranium extraction from sea water is an expensive process. Thorium deposits, which are three to four times as plentiful as land-based uranium deposits, can also be used in the highly efficient nuclear breeder reactors. Other sources of uranium include uraniferous coal ash, phosphates, shale, granite and sandstone. See Peak Uranium and Nuclear Power. Nuclear breeder reactors are far more efficient in obtaining energy than standard nuclear fission reactors, even being able to reprocess energy from nuclear waste or spent uranium fuel. It is a good thing that uranium deposits from the seas of Earth might last as long as the Sun, because nuclear weapons through nuclear deterrence and its doctrine of mutually assured destruction has prevented a world war erupting again since 1945. Rare earth metals may one day be mined from the sea bed as land based sources become used up, and these metals are needed for electric cars and hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells. See These Fearsome Robots Will Bring Mining to the Deep Ocean by Kate Baggaley in NBC News February 27, 2017, 10:01 AM ET. The sources of land based rare earth metals are often located in nations which are strong in resource nationalism, have unstable governments or are hostile to the interests of the U.S.A., which is the only nation in the world today strong enough to protect the rest of the free world in the post-Cold War era. See Plug-In Electric Vehicle. Should nuclear fusion energy become practical in the future, the isotope known as helium-3 from the Moon would become valuable, and there is enough helium-3 on the Moon to last for ten thousand years for nuclear fusion reactors. Nuclear energy could also be used to power electric cars and hydrogen fueled cars. In 1994, the American Congress foolishly ceased funding of the development of the Integral Fast Reactor, three years before it was due to be completed, which would have hugely increased the safety of nuclear power plants. The isotope helium-3 is the most valuable resource on the Moon, and there are other lunar resources, such as titanium, nickel, the platinum group of metals, aluminum or aluminium, silicon, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, diamonds, water, and rare earth elements, all of which have been mapped and analyzed by China, India, Japan, and the U.S.A. in recent years. A pure, helium-3, fourth generation, thermonuclear bomb would produce minimal or no radioactive fallout, and one ton of helium-3 has the potential to make a nuclear weapon with a 75 megaton yield. A helium-3 nuclear missile would be suitable for destroying asteroids, and in 2013 NASA estimated that there are more than 1,400 potentially hazardous asteroids threatening Earth. See China Leads Race to the Moon in The Diplomat by Jan Mortimer and Benjamin Finnis, January 7, 2015.
In 2015 42% of global oil production and 73% of the world's proven oil reserves were from the nations which belong to the OPEC or Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In December 2016 66% of OPEC's oil production and reserves were in the six Muslim Middle Eastern countries that surround the oil-rich Persian Gulf, or in other words about 48% of the world's proven oil reserves in 2015 were in the nations with a coastline on the Persian Gulf, i.e. 73 multiplied by 66 divided by 100 (see OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)). Should ISIS ever gain control of these oil-rich Arab nations of the Persian Gulf it would be necessary for NATO, preferably in cooperation with The United States, to seize control in order to prevent global hyper-inflation. The United States sends much of its exports to Europe and Asia, and these two continents depend far more on Middle Eastern oil than the U.S. does. Should the NATO military occupation of the oilfields of the Middle East result in high military casualties and taxes, and a voter backlash, it might even be necessary for military dictatorships to take over in the NATO countries. Russia should also militarily re-occupy the oil-rich nations of the Muslim Caucasus and Central Asia should they ever fall into the hands of Islamist theocracies. The United States supports Saudi Arabia despite its dictatorial royal government, lack of religious freedom, and human rights abuses under Sharia law, because it has little real choice but to do so, since Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves. About 25% of the world's oil reserves are in Saudi Arabia. Periodic attempts by the United States government to criticize Saudi Arabia's human rights record are rapidly retracted by Saudi threats to boycott the sale of oil to the United States. The Saudi royal dynasty of Al Saud has promised to supply the United States with relatively cheap oil in return for American military support to help keep them in power. See Arab Lobby in the United States and The Arab Lobby: The Invisible Alliance That Undermines America's Interests in the Middle East by Mitchell Bard. The New Yorker magazine's investigative journalist Seymour Hersh has claimed that the extremist and fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam known as Wahhabism or Salafism favoured by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and funded by Saudi petroleum in a phenomenon known as Petro-Islam, amounts to a form of protection money paid by the pro-American Saudi royals to Muslim Fundamentalists who wish to overthrow them in favor of an anti-American, authoritarian, theocratic-republican government, of the type which has ruled Shiite Muslim, non-Arabic Iran since 1979. The ultra-Sunni Arab Muslim fundamentalists of Saudi Arabia tried to overthrow the Saudi monarchy in the Grand Mosque Seizure or seige in Mecca which lasted from 20 November to 4 December 1979, which occurred roughly at the same time as the Shiite Muslim uprising in the oil and gas-rich Al Hasa province of Saudi Arabia, located along the coastal plain which borders the Persian Gulf. The Saudi Shiite Qatif Uprising lasted from 26 November to 3 December 1979. The minority Arab Muslim Shiites of Saudi Arabia had been inspired by the Islamist Iranian Revolution of the Shiite Persians which had taken place from 1-11 February 1979. In Saudi Arabia no political parties exist and in Iran only Islamist political parties are allowed to operate, and all laws passed by the Iranian parliament must receive final approval from high-ranking Shiite clerics whose job it is to ensure that Iranian laws are in conformity with the teachings of the Muslim Bible known as the Koran or Quran, and with the recorded deeds and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad known as the Sunna or Hadith. The high-ranking Iranian clerics also decide which Iranian political candidate can stand for election to office, usually on the criteria of whether they are fundamentalist enough when it comes to believing in Islam. The high-ranking Sunni clerics of Saudi Arabia also make sure that the laws decreed by the Saudi monarchy are in conformity with the Koran and Sunna. Islamic Sharia law as interpreted by Muslim clerics is based upon the teachings of the Koran and Sunna. See also You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia, Part I and Middle East Time Bomb: The Real Aim of ISIS Is to Replace the Saud Family as the New Emirs of Arabia, Part II by Alastair Crooke, former top British MI-6 agent in the Middle East, and author of Resistance: The Essence of Islamic Revolution, in The World Post, a partnership of HuffPost and The Berggruen Institute. The left-wing of politics is usually politically correct towards Muslim fundamentalists because of wishful thinking, believing, or rather hoping naively that Islamists will respect the secular, progressive tolerance of multiculturalism, while the center and the right-wing of politics is politically correct towards the Islamists because of Muslim Arab-owned petroleum and natural gas, especially that which comes from Salafist-Wahhabist Saudi Arabia. Whatever the differing motives of the left, center, and right wing of politics in being politically correct towards Muslims, the end result is the same, i.e. a cover-up and appeasement of the real causes behind Islamofascism or clerical Islamic Fascism, which is the teachings of the Koran or Quran and the Sunna or Hadith. The only way to truly safely de-radicalize a radical Muslim is to persuade him or her to give up in believing in Islam. The moderate, secular Muslim author A.Z. Mohamed in his article called Why Britain's Deradicalization Programs Are Failing, published in The Gatestone Institute-International Policy Council, June 30, 2018 at 5:00 a.m., has written that Britain's attempts to deradicalize Muslim terrorists have largely failed because it is politically incorrect to draw attention to those many chapters and verses in the Koran and Sunna which encourage terrorism targeted at non-Muslims, and at heretical, non-fundamentalist, tolerant, moderate, secular Muslims. Personally, I believe there should be no tolerance for intolerant Islamofascism. When it comes to fighting Islamist radicalism, we must fight its true causes, and not merely its symptoms. All politicians in Western nations seek to gain the votes of Muslim minorities, especially those with large and growing minorities. Most non-Muslim apologists for Islamist fundamentalism have never bothered to read the Koran or Quran and Sunna, often afraid to find out about intolerant and violent Islamic beliefs that would destroy their god of left-wing political correctness or right-wing need for Arab petroleum and natural gas. At the end of the day the Koran and Sunna is what it is, rather than what the politically correct wishes it to be. Worse are those non-Muslim apologists for Islamofascism who have read the Koran and Sunna and still cover up for Islamist fundamentalists. Even worse are those Muslims who deny the existence to ignorant and gullible non-Muslims of intolerant and violent passages from the Koran and Sunna, whereas Islamofascist terrorists often make no effort to hide them from non-Muslims, proudly bragging and boasting about their personal adherence to them. At least Islamofascist terrorists often do not deceive non-Muslims about their true long-term intentions to create a global and theocratic Muslim caliphate based on Sharia law.
History has shown that wherever the Muslims have become a majority in a nation, Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, Gnostics, Sikhs, Deists, and polytheists or pagans have often become second and third class citizens, a barely tolerated and often discriminated against and persecuted minority subject to the same harsh, brutal, puritanical Sharia law as applies to Muslims, especially in such Muslim nations as Saudi Arabia, Iran, and North Sudan. In Saudi Arabia, Iran, and North Sudan, atheists, agnostics, and secular libertines are not tolerated at all (see Rights of Non-Muslims in an Islamic State by Samuel Shahid in Answering Islam Home Page). Sharia law includes extremely violent corporal punishment such as flogging, stoning to death, beheading, amputation, and crucifixion. The Sunna or Hadith even has accounts of the Prophet Muhammad ordering his opponents to be burnt to death or immolated. Both the Koran or Quran and Sunna or Hadith sanction polygamy, slavery, the rape of slaves by their masters, marital rape, honor killings, wife beating as a disciplinary action, iconoclasm (Exodus 20:3-6, Deuteronomy 5:7-10, Exodus 25:17-22, Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31, Exodus 32, Ezekiel 18, Exodus 22:25, Deuteronomy 23:20-21, and I Kings 16:29-33 i.e. prohibitions against worshiping idols dedicated to pagan or polytheist gods and goddesses), and the second-class treatment of women before Islamic law, as is also allowed in the Jewish Old Testament. Pious, fundamentalist Muslims are assured that in Islamic heaven they will have full sexual access to 72 female virgins and immortal male youths, as much drinking of wine as they want, and as much food as they want. However, in their earthly lives, the Koran and Sunna forbids Muslims from pre-marital sex or fornication, extra-marital sex or adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism, and bisexuality (i.e. God is neither a man or a woman according to progressive Christians), prostitution, pornography, cross-dressing, the consumption of alcohol and pork, the use of narcotic, addictive drugs, gambling, usury or lending money on interest, theft, and apostasy or abandoning the Islamic faith. First time offenders are to be flogged or amputated, and second-time offenders are to be stoned to death, crucified, beheaded or burned/immolated to death, as prescribed by the Muslim law known as the Sharia, which is based on the teachings of the Koran and Sunna. The Prophet Muhammad owned slaves, slave concubines, engaged in slave trading, and polygamy with ten wives, one of whom he married at the age of nine. I found out about the nature of Islamic heaven in a website article called Islamic Heaven: Allah's Whore House - The Naked Truth, posted on May 13, 2015 by a disillusioned former Muslim called Syed Kamran Mirza who quoted many chapters and verses of the Koran, as well as the Sunna, to back up his accusations. See also The Gay Community is in Denial About Islamism by Douglas Murray in The Spectator, 9 August 2016, 5:20 PM. The strict and puritanical morality of fundamentalist Islamism finds some sympathy from fundamentalist Christians of various denominations, and from ultra-orthodox Jews, although both of the latter sharply disagree on the Koran's interpretation of the Judeo-Christian Bible, and in addition the Jews reject The New Testament of Christianity, while the Muslims radically re-interpret the New Testament, as they also do with The Old Testament. Jesus Christ, when asked by the Jewish scribes and Pharisees whether a woman caught in adultery should be stoned to death as the Law of Moses prescribed in the Torah, told the scribes and Pharisees they could do so if they were without sin. Jesus, who is without sin, because He is God Himself in the body of a man according to John 1:1-5, refused to condemn the adulterous woman, although He advised her not to sin again, according to John 8:1-11, for adulterers will be punished in Hell. Jesus also drank wine at the wedding celebration in Cana in Galilee, where He also performed His first miracle, although Jesus agreed with the Apostle Saint Paul that Christians should not drink to get drunk (Romans 13:13-14, The Acts of the Apostles 9:1-31 and 13:9). Non-Muslim tourists and guest workers should avoid those Muslim nations in which Sharia law is in effect, since their home governments can do little to help them if Muslim judges sentence them under Sharia law. It is even dangerous and risky for a non-Muslim to stop over at an airport in a Sharia law Muslim nation on the way to another country. Only foreign diplomats and foreign workers for Saudi Arabia's royal government-owned petroleum company called Saudi Aramco have immunity from Sharia law, and U.S. military personnel stationed in The Middle East are not immune from Sharia law outside their military bases (Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice in Saudi Arabia). The only way for American military personnel to be safe from Sharia law outside their bases in The Middle East is if the U.S. had a massive military presence there, preferably bolstered by other NATO troops, in order to make the Muslim Arabs fear and respect them. One of the reasons why the Americans completely withdrew from Iraq in 2011 to neighbouring Kuwait was because they could not get extraterritorial legal protection for their military personnel. The Saudis only fear and respect the foreign citizens of such powerful nations as The United States of America, Russia, and China, and the Iranians hold the Americans in contempt. Because of Muslim Arab-owned petroleum and natural gas, a foreign nation would not raise a finger if one of its foreign nationals ran afoul of Sharia law in the Arabian Peninsula, unless the Arabian Peninsula was formally colonized by NATO. The United States completely withdrew its military forces stationed in Saudi Arabia in 2003, where they had been since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The presence of Western infidels, kaffirs or kufars, non-Muslims, unbelievers in Saudi Arabia had stirred up great hatred among Saudi Arabia's Wahhabi-Salafist, Sunni Muslim fundamentalists, since Saudi Arabia is the home of Islam's two holiest cities of Mecca and Medina. Islam's third holiest city is in Jewish Jerusalem. Many Saudis would like to overthrow their pro-American monarchy and replace it with an authoritarian Islamist theocracy. ISIS and Al-Qaeda are ultra-Salafists, in other words consistent Salafists. Of the 19 hijackers involved in the September 11 2001 attacks upon The United States, master-minded by the Saudi born and raised Osama bin Laden, 15 of them were Saudi Arabian citizens or ex-citizens. The last Shah of Iran, a secular and pro-American ruler, was overthrown because of a severe economic depression and the disloyalty of his rank and file military, most of whom were closet Shiite Islamists. The same thing could happen in Saudi Arabia if a severe economic depression struck it. U.S. President James Carter refused to sell non-lethal riot control ammunition such as rubber and plastic bullets to the Shah's security forces, non-lethal so long as one does not aim for the head, which meant that the Shah's soldiers had to use deadly live ammunition to disperse rioters, which only further enraged the Iranian masses into paralyzing the nation's economy by means of a general strike, which in turn harmed the wages of the Iranian soldiers. Sometimes security forces have little choice but to use deadly ammunition when rioters swell into a large, uncontrollable, violent mob. The fundamentalist/literalist and jihadist Sunni Muslim ISIS Caliphate, as well as Al-Qaeda, believe Sunni Muslim and Arabic Saudi Arabia does not go far enough when it comes to Islamic fundamentalism, and would like to abolish the Saudi monarchy and aristocracy, which it accuses of indulging in un-Islamic libertinism behind closed doors and of being too friendly towards The United States. The Sunni Muslim Arab absolutist monarchies and aristocratic oligarchies of the oil-rich Persian Gulf nations host American bases in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and The United Arab Emirates, in order to protect them from the Shiite Muslim, Persian fundamentalist theocracy which has ruled Iran since the overthrow of the secular, anti-communist, and pro-American and pro-Israeli Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in 1979. Saudi Arabia fears that the Iranians would try to engineer an uprising among its Shiite Muslim minority which lives in the oil and gas rich Persian Gulf provinces, and Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and The United Arab Emirates also have the same fear. During the Cold War, and before the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the anti-communist Saudi Arabians looked to The United States to protect it from the nations of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Southern Yemen, and Afghanistan, which were once socialist nations allied to the Soviet Union, as were also Libya and Algeria. ISIS calls for the complete military withdrawal of American forces from the Middle East, the overthrow of the Arabian absolutist monarchies and aristocratic oligarchies, to be replaced with a world-wide Muslim Caliphate and theocracy, the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction, the destruction of Israel, and the destruction or forcible conversion of what it believes to be the heretical Muslim sects of the Shiites, Alawites, Ismailis, Druzes, Sufis, and Sikhs, not to mention the Gnostic Yazidis, Mandaeans, Manichaeans, and Bahais. The Muslim Shiites of Iran and Lebanon, in particular the Lebanese Shiite Hezbollah political party, have in turn accused the Sunnis of being heretics, and have also called for the destruction of Israel. Hezbollah, in collaboration with the secular Alawite Shiite, pro-Soviet, socialist Ba'athist state of Syria, and of Islamist, Shiite, theocratic Iran, was responsible for the twin suicide truck bombing of the United States Marine Corps and French Chasseur Paratroops barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, on October 23, 1983. The suicide attacks took the lives of 241 American marines, sailors, and soldiers, and 58 French paratroopers. See 1983 Beirut Barracks Bombings. The Americans and French, along with the British and Italians, were part of the Multinational Force in Lebanon Peacekeeping mission (August 25, 1982 - March 31, 1984). One of the survivors of that bombing, a certain U.S. Marine Corporal named John Chipura, whom information about can be found in Google Search, later lost his life in the Sunni Islamist Al Qaeda's suicide plane bombing of the World Trade Center twin towers on September 11, 2001 in New York City, while serving as a firefighter with the New York Fire Fighting Department. Even if the Israeli Jews withdrew their military and civilian settlements to the borders which existed before the 1967 Six Day War, many Muslim fundamentalists would not be happy until all of the Jews were evicted or exterminated from Palestine, or forcibly converted to Islam, along with the small Christian minorities of various denominations who lie scattered throughout the Middle East since the conquest of a large part of the Greek Byzantine or East Roman Empire by the Arab Muslims in the 600's and 700's A.D. There are many passages in the Muslim holy books of the Koran or Quran and Sunna or Hadith which are both anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic in nature (see References to Jews in the Koran in The Jewish Virtual Library and Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries, Updated September 2011 in The Jewish Virtual Library). See Koran or Quran chapters and verses 2:61, 2:88, 2:97-98, 2:121, 4:160, 5:12-13, 5:33, 5:41, 5:51, 5:63-64, 5:73, 5:78, 6:146, 6:118, 17:4, 20:47-48, and 62:6. The Sunna or Hadith, which is the recorded words and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad, are even more brutally anti-Jewish than the Quran. See Antisemitism in Islam. As distinguished Orientalist G.E. von Grunebaum has written:
It would not be difficult to put together the names of a very sizeable number of Jewish subjects or citizens of the Islamic area who have attained to high rank, to power, to great financial influence, to significant and recognized intellectual attainment; and the same could be done for Christians. But it would again not be difficult to compile a lengthy list of persecutions, arbitrary confiscations, attempted forced conversions (to Islam), or pogroms (i.e. massacres). (G.E. von Grunebaum, "Eastern Jewry Under Islam," Viator, (1971), page 369).By the Twentieth Century, the status of the dhimmi (i.e. Jews and Christians) in Muslim lands had not significantly improved. H.E.W. Young, British Vice Consul in the Iraqi city of Mosul, when Mosul was part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, wrote in 1909:
The attitude of the Muslims towards the Christians and the Jews is that of a master towards slaves, whom he treats with a certain lordly tolerance so long as they keep their place. Any sign of pretension to equality is promptly repressed. (Middle Eastern Studies, 1971, page 232).According to the following Hadith (saying of The Prophet Muhammad) as found in the Sunna:
The Day of Judgement will not come about until Muslims fight the Jews, when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. The stones and trees will say O Muslims, O Abdullah, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him. Only the Gharkad tree, (the Boxthorn tree) would not do that because it is one of the trees of the Jews. (related by al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) - Sahih Muslim, 41:6985, and 41:6981-6984; Sahih al-Bukhari 4:56:791 and 4:52:177.There are many similarities and parallels, as well as a history of joint military and diplomatic collaboration, between Islamist fundamentalism and German fascism known as Nazism or National Socialism during the years of The Third Reich from 1933 to 1945 (See Relations Between Nazi Germany and the Arab world; Religious Views of Adolf Hitler; Religion in Nazi Germany; Martin Luther and Antisemitism; Islamofascism; Jewish Bolshevism; Fascism; Nazism; Islamism). The reason why Israel has many military bases located in the Jordan River Valley in the West Bank, and in the Golan Heights overlooking the freshwater lake known as the Sea of Galilee, is because of its need to secure access to fresh water supplies. ISIS also calls for a sharp increase in the price of petroleum and natural gas exports, and for a complete oil and gas embargo for The United States, unless it pressures Israel into giving up its occupation of the West Bank and Golan Heights by placing economic sanctions on Israel, and also agrees to withdraw its military bases from The Middle East. Since the overthrow of the Gaddafi régime in 2011, Libya has descended into anarchy and civil war, and as a result Islamism has gained strength there, as well as people smugglers who flood and invade Europe with African economic migrants, many of whom are Muslims. In Iraq the Shiite Arab majority has gained power since the overthrow of the secular Saddam régime in 2003, and this development has worried the Sunni Saudi Arabians. There are many fundamentalist Shiite Arab Iraqi militias funded by Shiite but Persian Iran. The Sunni Arab minority of Iraq, who were in power with the help of Iraq's Arab and Aramaic Assyrian Christian minorities during the socialist but secular régime of Saddam Hussein, have turned in droves towards the Islamist ISIS as a result of their loss of power. The Sunni majority of Syria, many of whom support the Islamist ISIS, want to overthrow the secular Alawite Assad dynasty, which during the Cold War was allied to the Soviet Union, as was also Iraq. The Syrian Alawites find support from the Syrian Christians, Orthodox Shiites, and Druzes, and even some Sunni secularists. In Lebanon, the Syrian Alawites even have the support of some of its Christians and Shiites, some of its Druzes, secular Sunnis, and Alawites living in Lebanon. The Alawites, Druzes and Ismailis are Shiite splinter sects, all of whom are hated intensely by Sunni ISIS, and secretly by the orthodox Shiites. The Druzes live scattered throughout Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel including the occupied territories. When the Sunni Arabs of Iraq were in power before the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, they were locked in rivalry with the dominant Syrian Arab Alawites. The Iranian but Sunni Kurds, unlike the vast majority of Iranians in Iran proper who are Shiites, are hated by ISIS for not being Arabs, and for not being fundamentalist Muslims. The Kurds are also hated by the governments of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria who do not want to see a unified and independent Kurdistan, since the Kurds live in all four nations. Both the Islamist Sunni ISIS and Islamist Shiite Hezbollah, although hating each other, would like to destroy the Jewish state of Israel, and the Syrian government wishes to regain the Golan Heights lost in the 1967 Six Day War, when Israel fought the then Soviet-backed Syria and Egypt, as well as the somewhat pro-Western Jordanian Hashemite monarchy. The Arab world is an unstable and volatile series of tribal chiefdoms or sheikdoms, ethnic groups, and religious sects. The borders of the Muslim Middle East and North Africa are the artificial creations of past British, French, Spanish and Italian colonizers. The Muslim world would have to cease being Muslim for secular Western democracy to stand a chance of success in their countries. As North Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, and Egypt have shown, attempts to impose Western secular democracy on Muslim Arab nations all too often results in either anarchic failed states or anti-Western Islamist theocracies. Past Muslim caliphates sooner or later fragmented into warring, feuding, mutually hostile emirates and sheikdoms. Only strong, authoritarian, pro-Western and preferably secular governments can rule the Muslim world in the long run. Should Shiite, theocratic Iran acquire nuclear weapons, it would probably use them against Sunni Saudi Arabia and Jewish Israel, and Israel in return would retaliate with its nuclear arsenal. Should nuclear armed Sunni Pakistan become an Islamist theocracy, it would probably launch a nuclear strike against Shiite Iran, Jewish Israel, and nuclear armed Hindu India, and if Saudi Arabia gained nuclear weapons, and fell into the hands of ISIS, it would probably attack both Iran and Israel. If nuclear weapons struck oil fields, the burning black smoke emitted by the oil fields would pump radioactive pollution into the atmosphere, and the world price of oil would skyrocket. The nuclear doctrine of deterrence known as M.A.D. or mutually assured destruction would not frighten Islamist theocracies from using nuclear weapons, since they believe it would hasten the coming of the Mahdi and the end of days which lead to the Last Judgment of Allah. See Islamic Eschatology. The reason why Saddam Hussein refused to reveal that he had no weapons of mass destruction before the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003, was because he did not wish to have Iraq appear militarily weak before Iran. Iraq fought a long war with Iran from 1980-1988. Saddam Hussein also said he had no wish to form an alliance with Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda terrorist organization because he regarded Osama the Muslim fundamentalist to be opposed to his secular, socialist Iraqi Ba'athist state, and who therefore could have ended up eventually turning on him. See Saddam Hussein Told of Fearing Iran More Than U.S. in The New York Times by Scott Shane, July 2, 2009, Saddam Hussein Said WMD Talk Helped Him Look Strong to Iran by Glenn Kessler, Washington Post Staff Writer, Thursday, July 2, 2009 and FBI Files: Saddam Feared Iran More Than U.S. by James Gordon Meek, Daily News Washington Bureau, Wednesday, June 24, 2009, 4:59 PM. The Republican administration of George Bush junior refused to listen to doubts expressed by the Central Intelligence Agency or C.I.A. that Saddam Hussein's Iraq still had weapons of mass destruction in 2001-2003, or even contacts of a serious nature with Al Qaeda, a case of the lions of the C.I.A. led by the donkeys of the cabinet of the George Bush junior presidency.
All Muslims should technically be fundamentalists or literalists, since it is a core tenet of Muslim belief that the Muslim Bible known as the Koran or Quran is the recording of the literal words of Allah (God) as relayed to The Prophet Muhammad in a series of dreams by the Archangel Gabriel. They also believe that the Sunna or Hadith, which is the recorded deeds and words of the Prophet Muhammad, to be divinely inspired and historically factual. Many passages in the Koran and Sunna call for Muslims to keep fighting a Jihad or Holy War until the whole world submits and converts to Islam. History has shown that Muslim expansion has only stopped when it has run up against a superior military force (Why 'Moderate Islam' is an Oxymoron by Raymond Ibrahim, 03/26/2014, CBN News). The Muslim concept of the Jihad or Holy War, as well as the nature of Muslim heaven, can be found in several chapters and verses of the Muslim Bible known as the Koran. See Koran chapters and verses 9:5, 9:29, 4:95, 8:12, 9:123, 8:60, 9:14, 9:29, 9:33, 9:73, 8:38-39, 8:12-13, 61:9, 61:4-11, 2:193, 13:41, 21:44, 68:44, 33:27, 25:52, 3:110, 47:3-4, 48:17, 48:28-29, 61:4, 61:10-12, and 66:9 for the concept of Jihad. The harsh, brutal, puritancial Muslim Sharia law is based on the Koran and Sunna. Muhammad believed himself to be the last in a line of prophets sent by God which included such persons as Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Ezra, Daniel, Elijah, John the Baptist, and Jesus Christ, and Muslims believe that Islam is the fulfillment and restoration of true Judaism and Christianity. Islamists forbid not only Muslims, but even non-Muslims, from challenging the literal factual truth of the Koran and Sunna on pain of death, as Salman Rushdie's publishers, the journalists of the French Charlie Hebdo newspaper, and the French schoolteacher Samuel Paty found out the hard way. The ancient religion of Persia or Iran known as Zoroastrianism had a great influence on Judaism when Palestine was a province of the Persian Empire from 539-332 B.C., and many of the books of the Old Testament were first written or re-edited during this period (see Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity by Hannah M.G. Shapero, 9/6/1997). Emperor or Shah Cyrus the Great of Persia allowed the Jews to return from their captivity during the period of the Babylonian Exile, after the Persians had conquered the Babylonian Empire, and the three wise men or magi who visited the Christ Child, i.e. Melchior, Gaspar, and Balthazar, were Zoroastrian priests. Under Muslim rule polytheists or pagans are forced to convert to Islam, while Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as prescribed in the Koran, are forced to pay a heavy poll tax or protection money known as the Jizya in order to pressure them to convert to Islam. Muslims believe that Islam is the only really true and perfect religion on Earth. According to the Koran and Sunna it is the duty of Muslims to try to convert non-Muslims to Islam, but Muslims who convert to another religion or to no religion at all should be executed if they refuse to return to Islam, and so should non-Muslims who try to convert Muslims to another religion (see Myths of Islam by TROP - The Religion of Peace.Com, The Quran's Verses of Violence by the TROP (The Religion of Peace) organization, Is the Quran Hate Propaganda? by the TROP (The Religion of Peace) organization, 'Religion of Peace' Is Not A Harmless Platitude by Douglas Murray, The Spectator, 17 January 2015, 9:00 AM, Do Islam and the West Share the 'Same Values'?" by Raymond Ibrahim, Frontpage Mag, September 30, 2016, The Moderate Muslim Majority Myth-What Exactly is the Litmus Test For "Moderation"? by William Kilpatrick, Frontpage Mag, October 17, 2016). Muslim fundamentalists believe that all non-Muslims automatically go to hell, as do also secular, non-fundamentalist and heretical Muslims, and so are therefore not innocent persons who can as a result be killed with impunity in terrorist attacks should the need arise in the cause for the defence or expansion of Islam. The Koran goes from peaceful and tolerant passages in its early chapters to bloody and violent ones in the latter chapters, and there are also violent and intolerant verses in the Sunna. The latter chapters of the Koran overrule and abrogate the earlier ones. The reasoning behind abrogation in the Koran is that it is alright for Muslims to practice Taqiyya/Muda'rat or deception and lying towards non-Muslims in order to gain their trust and so thereby make them let their guard down, and thereby make it easier for Muslims to later on defeat non-Muslims when they have been reduced to an impotent minority. In Koran Chapter 3, verse 54, it is written that "and they (the disbelievers) schemed, and Allah schemed (against them): and Allah is the best of schemers." See Taqiyya or Muda'rat: Deception and Lying in Islam by the TROP (The Religion of Peace) organization. Jesus Christ in The New Testament of the Christian Bible in Matthew 5:37 quite categorically condemned lying, teaching us that our Yes be Yes, and our No be No, because whatever differs from this standard is a sign of Satan's will. A disillusioned former Catholic convert to Islam, who eventually ended up leaving Islam, has posted an article on the internet in which he claimed that many translations of the Koran from the Arabic language into foreign languages are deliberately deceitful in order to lull potential converts to Islam into a false sense of security. See Former Catholic Convert to Islam: Study Islam and Leave It by J.J., 21 November, 2008, in Islam-Watch.Org. The Koran has at the very least 109 verses that urge Muslims to war against non-Muslims for the purpose of spreading Islamic rule. See The Quran's Verses of Violence by the TROP (The Religion of Peace) organization. In the last ten years of the life of the Prophet Muhammad, and the one hundred years following his death, Islam spread from the Arabian Peninsula as far west as Spain and as far east as India and Central Asia through aggressive warfare and deliberate campaigns of conquest. According to the Koran, Jesus is the second most important prophet of Islam after Muhammad, but he is not the Son of God. In fact, at the end of days according to the Koran and Sunna, Jesus will return with the Prophet Muhammad to destroy the Christian cross and all religions other than Islam. See Myths of Islam: Muslims Believe in Jesus in TROP (The Religion of Peace Organization). According to the Apostle Saint Paul in his epistles to the Galatians 1:6-9 and II Corinthians 11:1-4, those people who preach that Jesus is not the Son of God, and is not the God Yahweh Himself in the body of a man as taught in the Gospel of John 1:1-5, are accursed, and as written by Saint Paul in II Corinthians 11:13-15, are false apostles in the service of Satan. For both Christians and Jews, the Prophet Muhammad is a false prophet who contradicted the teachings of both the Old and New Testaments of the Judeo-Christian Bible, although the Jews also regard Jesus as a false Messiah who failed to fulfill ALL of the prophecies concerning the arrival of the Messiah as set forth in the Old Testament. Christians believe that Jesus will fulfill ALL of the prophecies concerning the Messiah as is written in the Old Testament at His Second Coming as the Parousia or Son of Man as is written in The New Testament, at some time in the indeterminate future. So long as there are Muslim minorities in the nations of the secular Western world, and so long as these nations are involved in the wars and state politics of Muslim nations, and prevent the coming to power of Islamist theocracies, and so long as they do not put economic sanctions on Israel because of its semi-apartheid policy of building Jewish settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights, the Western World will always be targeted by Muslim jihadists, either operating as part of underground terrorist cells or as unpredictable lone wolves. The only truly way to be safe from such attacks, at least while the West is involved in wars in the Muslim world, is to have absolutely no Muslims on their soil, either as citizens, permanent residents, tourists, and diplomats. The only way to get rid of expanding Muslim minorities in secular western nations would be through a terrible and inhumane campaign of systematic genocide launched against them, and only a far right or far left military dictatorship would have the stomach to carry out such a program. Having Muslim minorities in Western nations is like playing Russian roulette, where the gambler may get lucky many times in a row, but is certain to get unlucky if he or she keeps playing long enough. A non-Muslim citizen or permanent resident living in a Western nation with a Muslim minority can only hope to be not unlucky enough to be at the wrong place at the wrong time when an Islamist and Jihadist inspired act of terrorism strikes, even if they are going about their ordinary business. What makes a Jihadist terrorist attack so galling is that it is carried out in the name of God at randomly selected non-Muslim victims. In addition, it is often the case that moderate, secular Muslims eventually turn into fundamentalist Islamists prone to Jihadist terrorism, or the parents of would-be Muslim terrorists, either by a gradual or rapid process. The day the world finds cheap alternatives to Arab oil and gas is a day when Muslim terrorists will become irrelevant. Personally, after having read the Quran and Sunna, and having come across its many intolerant, brutal, violent and puritanical passages, I have come to the view that secular Western nations should ban any further Muslim migration into their countries, especially where those minorities are increasing as a percentage of a nation's population. Although a ban on further Muslim migration could do nothing about the Muslims already in a Western nation, it would ensure that a Muslim minority could never become a dictatorial majority, and would also reduce the risk of increasing the number of terrorist attacks as a Muslim minority becomes a larger part of the population of a Western nation through immigration, births, and converts. The violent and intolerant passages of the Koran and Sunna should be made a compulsory part of the education curriculum as taught in both public and private schools in the West, so as to warn would-be converts to Islam about the dangers of converting to Islam, a religion in which one may enter but are never allowed to leave without serious risk to life and limb. Islamophobia cannot be racist because Islam is a religion and not a race, and there are more than one kind of human race included among the followers of Islam, although many Arab Muslims tend to look down upon non-Arab Muslims. Islamophobes often have good reason to fear the violent and intolerant verses of the Koran and Sunna. Secular nations in the Western World should take away the rights of Muslim citizens to vote and serve on juries, and also take away the right of Muslims to be employed as judges, lawyers, politicians, military personnel, law enforcement officers, teachers of non-Muslims, and medical personnel. There should be no tolerance for intolerant Islamofascism. If current population trends continue, there will come a day in the future when the Jews in Israel, including the West Bank and the Golan Heights, will be outnumbered by Arab Muslims, Christians, and Druze, and such Jewish Christians as Hebrew Catholics, Messianic Jews, and Jews for Jesus (see in The New King James Version of the Bible The Acts of the Apostles 18:21, 20:6, 20:16; I Corinthians 16:8, Matthew 23:1-4, Matthew 26:17-35, Mark 14:12-25, Luke 22:14-23, John 13:1-38, John 7, John 10:22-23, I Corinthians 11:17-34, I Corinthians 9:20, and I Corinthians 10:32-33), which makes Israel's West Bank and Gaza Strip Walls, as well as Israel's barrier wall built from 2010 to 2013 along its border with Egypt, all the more necessary. The Jews in Israel/Palestine will then form a besieged minority as did the Caucasians/Europeans, Khoisans, mixed-race Coloreds, and Asians of the majority Bantu South Africans during the Apartheid years. So long as Jewish Israel refuses to allow the creation of an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank, and refuses to withdraw its Jewish settlers there, Israel will always live with the fear and reality of terrorism committed against Jews by Palestinian Muslim terrorists.
The petroleum and natural gas rich nations of the Muslim Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia should try to diversify their economies for the future time when cheap energy alternatives are found to replace their primary exports, especially as oil and gas eventually becomes more scarce. Many of the largely desert Arab Muslim nations need to invest in water-from-the-sea desalination plants and pipelines as their underground fresh water supplies become used up by their growing populations. Not only is water vital for drinking, bathing, washing, sewerage disposal, cooking, and agriculture, but also for industry. Should they not take the necessary steps, then the over-populated Arab Muslim desert nations will face a major economic depression, and many of them will become economic refugees seeking to invade Europe by means of uncontrolled migration. Such a phenomenon will put a massive strain on the European economy, and will lead to the rise of far-right political parties as Caucasian Christian and secular Europeans become scared that they will become a minority in their own continent. The only way to really deter such an invasion of Europe by Muslim economic refugees would be through a terrible and inhumane campaign of systematic genocide of the refugees/invaders, and military dictatorships would arise in Europe because apart from some ultra far-right political parties, the mainstream democratic political parties of Europe would not have the stomach for such a task when extreme necessity arises. Some of the center-left wing, centrist, and even center-right political parties of Europe might even try to stave off a far-right wing voter landslide by making the Muslim refugees/invaders voting citizens and members of the armed forces and police, but this might only result in a wave of military coups or putsches throughout Europe in reaction. If China becomes as wealthy per capita as Japan, the wave of Muslim refugees might even try to forcibly invade China via the former Soviet Central Asian republics. The Chinese could avert the potential risk of mass conversion to Islam by their own people by encouraging a revival in its Confucian, Buddhist, Taoist, and ethnic Han Chinese folk religion of Shendao, which place a high value on ethnic Han Chinese patriotism and culture, as well as respect for those in authority who preserve and enforce peace, justice, and law and order. There has been no ethnic group, tribe, and culture throughout history that has not tried to resist invasion, whether it be on a small, medium, or large scale. The indigenous peoples of The United States of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, all of which were once former colonies of Great Britain, put up a valiant but futile resistance against overwhelming numbers and modern weapons. History should not be allowed to repeat itself. You do not need weapons to invade a nation, but it can be done by means of an uncontrolled influx of economic and/or political refugees who eventually come to outnumber the dominant ethnic and racial group of a host nation. According to The Acts of the Apostles, chapter 17, verse 26 in The New Testament of the Bible, God has determined the preappointed times and boundaries of all the nations on Earth, whom He has made from one blood, and that is why it is so evil for one nation to invade the lands of another. A nation that cannot defend its borders and sovereignty is no nation, but merely a slave of other nations. If the Caucasians/Europeans allow themselves to become a minority, through uncontrolled migration/invasion and low natural birth rates, in Europe, North America, Australasia, and in Argentina and Uruguay, they will become the laughing stock and suckers of the non-Caucasian/European world, especially of the far more ethnically and racially homogenous nations of China, Taiwan, North and South Korea, and Japan. Migration should be limited to the bare necessary amount of migrants who happen to be skilled workers, and who are also proficient in understanding their host nation's language. The European farmer minorities of Zimbabwe/Rhodesia and South Africa have seen their farms confiscated without compensation by the black majority, with the consequence that their national economies have suffered severely. Too often in human history it was possible to solve one form of racism only by replacing it with another form of racism, and often throughout human history yesterday's victims have become tommorrow's perpetrators once they gain power. Too often in human history it was possible to solve one problem only by replacing it with another problem. Ethnic groups who unwillingly become a minority, as is the case with the indigenous peoples of The United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, and Uruguay, often fail to prosper down the generations, because they resent having been forcibly reduced to minority status, and as a result are extremely reluctant to assimilate into the culture of their conquerors and invaders. I believe that Caucasians/Europeans are no more, and no less racist than any of the other human races on planet Earth. The hunter-gatherer and fishermen natives of North Sentinel Island in the Andaman island chain of India, have shown in their hostile and xenophobic response towards the intrusion of foreigners onto their island's shores, the genetically pre-programmed racist instinct possessed by those living in uncivilized and non-politically correct societies. At least the North Sentinelese are honest in their feelings towards foreigners. Tribalism, Ethnocentrism, and Racism is a human genetic instinct which can only be controlled, managed, and repressed in good times, and which all too often in bad times spins out of control, especially during times of run-away hyperinflation or extreme unemployment, as was the case in Weimar Germany from 1919-1933. Some sociologists argue that racism exists more frequently among those with a lower level of education and intelligence, but I believe that those with more education and a higher level of intelligence hide and deny their racist instincts, even from themselves, at least until a severe economic depression strikes, when they often show their true racist feelings. The 21 Nazi, National Socialist, or German Fascist defendants at the Nuremburg War Crimes Trials of 1945-1946, all of whom were notorious racists and ethnocentric bigots, were of above average intelligence, several considerably so, in the I.Q. scores which they received after having been given I.Q. exams by their prison psychiatrists at Nuremburg after the end of World War Two, with their I.Q's ranging from a low of 106 to a high of 143, and with 128 being their I.Q. average score. Anything below 85 in I.Q. scores is regarded as being unintelligent. Evil bullies can be smart and popular in this passing temporal world, as displayed in the elections, governing party coalitions, enthusiastic mass party rallies, and the military parades held before and during in Nazi Germany (1933-1945). See The Results of the Nazi IQ Tests by Sean Kernan in History of Yesterday. The American biologist Edward O. Wilson published in 1978 the book called On Human Nature, which won the Pulitzer prize for general nonfiction in 1979. In this book Wilson said that human beings have a tendency to divide other humans into "them" and "us" - that is, foe or friend. This tendency evolved over the generations among bands of prehistoric, Stone Age, human and hominid hunter gatherers whose bands ranged from around 25 to 100 persons. "These bands were like big families and had their own territories, which they defended. They saw other people as competitors for food, water, and shelter" (3). Wilson believes that our Stone Age, hunter-gatherer, tribal instincts are still part of our genetic makeup, and include such instincts as a dislike of strangers and a readiness to fight them (4). Modern humans evolved from a common ancestor which also gave rise to the apes, and the animal living today which humans are most closely related to are the chimpanzees, who are 98.4% genetically identical with humans (5). The other prehistoric ape-men, such as the Australopithecines, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Neanderthals, and Denisovans are now extinct, although DNA tests have confirmed that modern humans living outside Africa have between 1-2% Neanderthal DNA in their genomes. Most human and Neanderthal or Denisovan hybrid offsprings however were infertile, as is the case with mules, the result of breeding between donkeys and horses. The primatologist Jane Goodall from her scientific observations has found that violence between neighboring social groups of chimpanzees occurs often (6). The Western provinces of the Roman Empire fell through a combination of civil wars and barbarian invasions happening all at one and the same time, while the more unified eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived longer, before it too later on fell to a combination of civil wars and external invasion. The western provinces of the Roman Empire had civil wars from 383-384, 387-388, 392-394, 397-398, 407-413, 419-421, 423-425, 427-429, and 432 A.D, and one of the reasons why the Byzantines became an easy prey to the Turks, many of whom were the descendants of Greeks and Armenians who had learnt the Turkish language and converted to Islam, was because there were four major and protracted civil wars in the Byzantine Empire during the 1300's A.D, not to mention those that occurred in the empire from roughly 1025-1300 A.D. See List of Roman Civil Wars and Revolts; List of Byzantine Revolts and Civil Wars; and Battle of Manzikert. In times of civil war, the level of drill, training, discipline, and loyalty went out of the window for the Roman and Byzantine military forces, with rival factions even collaborating with the barbarian and Turkish invaders, many of whom were part of both the rank and file and the officer corps of the Roman and Byzantine militaries. In the many battles of the civil wars fought by the late Roman and Byzantine armies, the highly experienced veterans were killed and replaced by inexperienced conscripts and untrustworthy barbarians and Turks. The wages of the Late Roman armies were worth less in real terms than that paid to earlier generations of Roman soldiers (7). The barbarians who invaded and divided up the western provinces of the Roman Empire were of Germanic and Indo-Iranian origin. The Roman Emperor Tiberius should have allowed his general Germanicus Julius Caesar to finish off the Germanic warlord Arminius in his tactically successfull, but strategically incomplete military campaigns east of the Rhine and north of the Danube rivers carried out from 14 to 16 A.D. in Germania, which avenged somewhat the defeat of the Roman general Varus by Arminius in 9 A.D. In addition, the Mongolian Huns as horse archers were armed with a powerful, long range, composite recurved bow, as well as with lances and scimitar swords (8).
The European NATO members, not including a now unreliable United States, should have a nuclear triad arsenal (i.e. land, sea, and air), both strategic and tactical in nature, and a conventional military force at least equal in size to that of Russia as a credible force of deterrence. If Ukraine had not given up their nuclear arsenal to Russia in 1994, as did also Belarus and Kazakhstan, it is unlikey that the Russians would have dared to retake by armed force the Crimea and Donbass in 2014 from Ukraine. Those who are complacent about the future often live to regret it, either in this world or the next, and as well as their descendants. If Israel, which has a small population but prosperous economy can afford to have a nuclear weapons triad arsenal, then those European nations with a larger and wealthier economy such as Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, The Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden and Turkey could have one too. Only the European NATO nations of France and The United Kingdom have an independent nuclear weapons arsenal, although none of them are currently a nuclear triad power. NATO should also militarily occupy Libya in order to restore law and order to that anarchic, fragmented country and thereby stop the people smugglers who flood/invade Europe with African economic migrants, many of whom are Muslims. NATO should also keep up friendly relations with Turkey in order to stop the flood/invasion of refugees from the mostly Muslim Middle East who use the Balkan route. Social security, citizenship, emergency relief, and cheap labour given to economic migrants and war refugees only encourages others to keep invading Europe. Europe should not allow itself to become a racial, cultural, religious, and economic extension of Africa, both north and south of the Sahara Desert, and also that of The Middle East or South-West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia. Otherwise Europe will cease to be Europe. In a similar fashion, South Korea, Japan, and Australia should also acquire its own independent nuclear triad arsenal to counter that which is possessed by China and North Korea. See Would China Invade Taiwan? If the American President at any given time is foolish enough to give Russia and China the green light to invade and take over Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, it might even be necessary for the American military to overthrow him in a military coup and rule in the interim as a military dictatorship before a return to civilian rule. During this interim it could establish secure borders to prevent an uncontrolled influx of refugees/invaders, as has been more or less successfully done by the Israelis with the Palestinian West Bank and Gaza Strip, and also with the largely effective Egyptian-Israeli Border Barrier, because The United States of America and Canada should not allow themselves to become an extension of Latin America, and the American military could also closely vet Muslim immigrants, and then replace the gerrymander of the electoral college system with either the first-past-the-post voting method, or the preferential or alternative vote counting method as is practiced in Australia. The American military might also replace the American republican system of government with the Westminster system of government as is practiced in the federations of Australia and Canada, in order to avoid gridlock and lame duck administrations which arise when different political parties control the Presidency and Congress simultaneously. The proportional representation method of vote counting too often results in short-lived, unstable, ineffectual and indecisive governments, as is most notoriously the case in Italy. I read this web site posted by a certain Paul Wallis, a CEO of the Sydney Media Services.com, on November 13, 2014, called Why Unimaginative People Are So Dangerous, which says that unimaginative people cannot predict future possibilities and potential dangers, because they focus on the here and now, and as a result ignore the past and the future, as well as ignore causes and consequences. Unimaginative people are not paranoid enough, because they are too complacent and gullible, and have a tendency to let their guard down, allowing themselves to be self deceived by naive wishful thinking. The former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said in a speech before NATO at its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, in June 2011, that future generations of U.S. political leaders for whom the Cold War was not a formative experience may not consider the return on America's investment in NATO worth the cost, and that the American Congress and ordinary tax paying voters are growing impatient and less tolerant with those non-American NATO members who were not spending enough on their defense. In a March 2010 speech to a NATO conference held in Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said that "the demilitarization of Europe-where larges swaths of the general public and political class are averse to military force and the risks that go with it-has gone from a blessing in the 20th century to an impediment to achieving security and lasting peace in the 21st." Russia has made a comeback and China is growing from strength to strength. Some people might say that an isolationist American President in the post-Cold War era is an aberration, but aberrations can repeat themselves in the future if the root causes which led them to be appealing to voters is not addressed, notwithstanding the electoral wild cards produced by electoral colleges and global disease pandemics, and by a low voter turn out and deliberately invalid voting ballot papers. There is no point for the European members of NATO to wait until a Russian invasion has begun before trying to gain a parity with Russia in its nuclear weapons deterrent force, and also in its conventional armed forces. The European members of NATO have the ability to stand on their own two feet without American help, but they are sharply lacking in the will and unity necessary to achieve such an independent state of affairs. The Russian military presence in Syria, which dates back to 1971, has increased since the Syrian Civil War began in 2011, especially from 2015 onwards, and Syria shares a border with America's ally Israel. Russia, The United States, and Israel are all nuclear weapons powers. To the immediate north of Syria lies Turkey, a NATO member which has American military bases on its soil.
According to the article titled The Last Days of a White World: We Are Near a Global Watershed - A Time When White People Will Not Be in the Majority in the Developed World, Britain Included. Anthony Browne Reports. Special Report: Race in Britain, first published on the Internet by The Guardian magazine on Monday, 4 September 2000, 03.02 Australian Eastern Daylight Time, the proportion of the world's population living in Europe will go down from 25% in 1900 to 7% by the year 2050. By 2025, 98% of the growth in the world's population will be in the lesser developed nations found in Africa and Asia. The most significant reason for this is lower birth rates in the rich nations: in 61 nations, mainly the wealthy ones, people are no longer having enough babies to replace themselves. In 2000, 72% of the population of The United States of America was non-hispanic white, and they are predicted to become the minority between the years 2055 to 2060 because of falling birth rates, and because most of the immigrants to The United States are now coming from Latin America and Asia. In Europe and Australasia (i.e. Australia and New Zealand), because of falling birth rates, and because most of the immigrants to Europe and Australasia are now non-Caucasians/Europeans from Africa, the West Indies, and Asia, some of the nations of Western, Central, Northern and Southern Europe, as well as that of Australia and New Zealand, could have non-Caucasian/European majorities by 2060. These future demographic trends will lead to a racist, aggressively defensive backlash from the Caucasian/European or White populations of North America (i.e. The United States and Canada), Europe, and Australasia. The indigenous Caucasian peoples of Europe will especially resent becoming a minority in their ancestral homelands, as have also felt the indigenous peoples of the British settler colonies of North America and Australasia, in addition to the Spanish settler colonies of Argentina and Uruguay. Similar concerns were raised by the authors Amy Drew, Scott Sleek, and Anna Mikulak in the article titled When the Majority Becomes the Minority, published by The Association for Psychological Science (APS) on March 31, 2016 on the Internet. The APS article predicts that the once majority Caucasian or white peoples of Europe, North America, and Australasia will become increasingly racist towards the non-Caucasian immigrant peoples living in their homelands as the latter increase as a percentage of the total population, and especially so in times of economic depression. The example of Weimar Germany (1919-1933) during the world wide global Great Depression of 1929-1939 comes to mind, an economic depression which was only ended by the wartime spending of World War Two from 1939-1945, and by the subsequent Cold War of 1945-1991. The nations of North America and Australasia now struggle to attract immigrants from Europe, because the economic success of The European Union has largely removed the incentive for Europeans to emigrate outside their home continent, and because the death rate now exceeds the birth rate of Europe, as it also does in North America and Australasia. There is a high chance that when the non-whites become the majority in the nations of the Western World, they will gang up on the white minority, much as prisoners resent the outnumbered guards and wardens who try to keep them under control. Although prisoners have rivalries among themselves, they are usually united in their resentment towards their guards and warders. As mentioned before in this web site, today's victims become tommorrow's perpetrators far too often throughout the course of human history when given half the chance, for example when Muslim minorities become Muslim majorities, although Islam is a religion, and not a human race. Although I believe we should never judge people, we also should never give them the benefit of the doubt. It would be good if we could trust one another, and thereby relax and let our guard down, but in this sinful, fallen, evil world this will not be wise to do until the Second Coming of Jesus Christ. Racism will not really end until Jesus Christ returns to planet Earth for the second time in history. The Australian History Profesor Geoffrey Blainey has argued in his 1984 book called All for Australia that "the evidence is clear that many multicultural societies have failed and that the human cost of the failure has been high." When one looks at the past histories of such ethnically diverse nations such as the former Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Union, especially in The Caucasus and Central Asia, Burma or Myanmar, Sri Lanka (Tamils and Sinhalas), India (i.e. Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs, Sanskrit Hindis and Dravidians), Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan (Pashtuns, Hazaras, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Turkmen), Turkey (Turks, Greeks, Kurds and Armenians), Yemen, Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories, Malaysia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Brazil, South Africa, and the nations of Africa and The Middle East which are divided into many tribes, ethnic groups and religious sects, one can see that Professor Blainey has a strong point. African tribal and ethnic conflicts in the past were at their most brutal in nations such as Ruwanda or Rwanda and Burundi (Hutus and Tutsi), Zaire or the Democratic Republic of the Congo, The Congo, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Nigeria, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Mali, The Central African Republic, Angola, Mozambique and Libya. African tribal and ethnic conflicts, and the enslavement and sale of African tribal prisoners of war, is as old as Human Africa itself. Third World refugees fleeing violence, poverty, corruption, mismanagement or incompetence, and dictatorship in their native countries are really asking the First World to foot the bill for the failures of their native homelands. I believe that one of the reasons why Europe, North America, and Australasia have generous refugee immigration policies is because of their Christian heritage, which is now in decline in the Western World, as opposed to the ethnically homogenous but non-Christian nations of Japan, North and South Korea, China, and Taiwan, all of which are strongly influenced by native, polytheistic and animist folk religions, such as Sindo/Shindo, Shinto, and Shendao, and by Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. Personally, I believe that multiculturalism in moderation is a good thing. However, too much of anything in excess is a bad thing. The Americans face a huge problem from illegal migration presented by economic migrants coming from the largely Latin American or Hispanic nations of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. A generation from now there is a big risk that Hispanic Americans will form the overwhelming majority of the population of the Southwestern United States, which lies adjacent to the Third World nation of Mexico. The largely Roman Catholic Hispanic or Latin American Christians are not especially known for their support for Christian Zionism, and Christian Zionism is most strongly supported by evangelical as opposed to mainline Protestant Christianity in The United States of America, and since the 1990's the number of atheists, agnostics, and nominal, indifferent, lukewarm Christians have been steadily increasing as a percentage of the American population. Although Biblically inspired Christian Zionism is one motive for American support for the nation-state of Israel, as this web site has shown it is by no means the only or even the chief reason for the American backing of Israel. The form of Catholicism practiced by Latin Americans shows much hidden influence from the previously pagan or polytheist religions of the American Indians or Amerindians and imported sub-Saharan or Black African slaves, because the largely male Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonists intermarried or sexually intermingled extensively with the Amerindians and Black Africans. There was a great social taboo against marriage and sexual liasons between Spanish, Portuguese, and French females with American Indian and Black African males in colonial and post-colonial Latin America. There are also profound cultural differences when it comes to the work ethic between the Spanish-speaking, Roman Catholic Hispanic Americans and the English-speaking, Anglo-Celtic American Protestants. No Latin American nation has proved to be an economic success story in the long run. A generation from now, if current trends continue, the American population will be so divided deeply between Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Caucasians/Europeans, and Amerindians/American Indians, that The United States of America will become incapable of leading the free world, especially when Caucasians/Europeans or non-Hispanic whites become a minority of the total population, and especially if a global economic Great Depression were to strike the world. See The Hispanic Challenge-Foreign Policy, 28 October 2009, 8.39 P.M., by Samuel P. Huntington. In the future, The United/Divided States of America will come to resemble Brazil. In Brazil, the lighter your skin tone, the more likely it is that you belong to the middle and upper classes, as well as to the governing classes, and this background racism in Brazil has led to a permanent state of resentment, envy, tension, and friction in Brazilian society. Brazil lacks an ethnic and racial majority, with the population divided between Caucasians/Europeans, Black Africans, mulattoes or mulatos (mixed black and white), mestizos or caboclos (mixed white and indigenous South American Indian or Amerindian), zambos or cafuzos (mixed black and indigenous Amerindian), pardos (mixed European, Black African, and Amerindian), and Amerindians. It was largely Portuguese males, mainly because of a shortage of Portuguese females, who intermarried or sexually intermingled with the indigenous South American Indians and with the imported black or sub-Saharan African slaves. There was a great social taboo in colonial and post-colonial Brazil against marriage and sexual liasons between Portuguese females and Black African or American Indian males. Only the colonial Portuguese language somewhat unifies the Brazilians, as well as the Roman Catholic denomination of Christianity. The gap between the rich and poor has always been too wide in Brazil since its Portuguese colonial days onwards, and there is a saying that Brazil is a country of the future and always will be, which means that Brazil has the potential to become an economically developed First World nation but never will achieve it. Brazil gained its independence from Portugal in 1822. Nation-states with a large racial and ethnic majority tend to attract stronger loyalty from its citizens when it comes to supporting its government and armed forces than do those nations which lack such a large majority. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites in California decreased from 80% of the population in 1970 to around 40% in 2010, largely because of illegal migration from next door Mexico. The United States should have built a wall with its Mexican border back in 1970. The Jewish Israelis became more and more violently agressive and xenophobic towards largely sub-Saharan or Black African illegal economic migrants when they began to invade Israel with the help of Arab Bedouin people smugglers across the deserts of the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula (Israel is Racist. Its Deportations of Africans Should Surprise No One by David Sheen, March 16, 2018, in The Forward, a Jewish American magazine). Fearing that Israel would lose its character as a Jewish state, because many of the illegal African migrants were Muslims, the Israeli government between 2010 to 2013 built a barrier wall alongside its border with Egypt, and this barrier successfully reduced the flood of illegal African economic migrants to a manageable trickle. See Egyptian-Israeli Border Barrier. The Americans have sent missions to study the Egypt-Israel Barrier in order to see whether a similar barrier could be erected along the Mexican-United States border, a border which is longer than that between Israel and Egypt, but with a larger American economy and population to finance, maintain, and patrol it.
(1). Robert O. Paxton, Europe in the Twentieth Century, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., Second Edition, Updated Printing, 1991, pages 599 and 642.
(2). William G. Dewald, Capitalism, in The World Book Encyclopedia, Volume C-ch, No.3, 1987, page 157, Chicago, U.S.A.
(3). Peter R. Limburg, "Edward O. Wilson," in Science Year 1989: The World Book Annual Science Supplement, Chicago, U.S.A., page 369.
(4). Peter R. Limburg, pages 369-370.
(5). Jinger Hoop, "Jane Goodall's Challenge," in Science Year 1996: The World Book Annual Science Supplement, Chicago, U.S.A., page 113.
(6). Jinger Hoop, page 110.
(7). Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West: The Slow Death of the Roman Superpower, Paperback Edition published in 2010 by Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books Ltd, London, United Kingdom, pages 91, 110, 119, 120, 141-142, 15-153, 205, 212-213, 210 and 260, 282, 315, 322-323, and 409. Adrian Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire, Paperback Edition published in 2004 by Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books Ltd, London, United Kingdom, pages 177, 407, and 423-424. Roger Collins, Early Medieval Europe: 300-1000, The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, United Kingdom 1991, pages 44 and 89-90. Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, pages 121, 214, 296, 299-300, 303-304, 307, 310-331, 336, 347, 356, 359-360, 372.
(8). Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, pages 317-319.
Here are a selection of religiously intolerant and violent verses from the Muslim Bible known as the Koran or Quran which support the Muslim doctrine of Jihad or Holy War aimed ultimately at Islamic world conquest:
"And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah [disbelief in Islam or unrest] is worse than killing... but if they desist, then lo! Allah [the Muslim Arabic name for the Judeo-Christian God Yahweh] is forgiving and merciful. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah [disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah] and worship is for Allah alone. But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against the Az-Zalimun (the polytheists or pagans, and the wrongdoers, etc.)"Quran 3:151
Soon shall We (Muslims) cast terror into the hearts of Unbelievers (non-Muslims, infidels, kafirs or kufars), for that they joined companions with Allah, for which He has sent no authority."Quran 8:12
I (Allah) will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve (in Islam). Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them."Quran 8:39
"And fight with them (the non-Muslims) until there is no more fitna (disorder, unbelief) and religion is all for Allah (for Islam)."Quran 9:5
"So when the sacred months have passed away, then slay the idolaters (pagans or polytheists) wherever you find them, and take them captive and besiege them and lie in wait for them in every ambush, then if they repent and keep up prayer (to Allah) and pay the poor-rate (zakat), leave their way free to them."Quran 9:29
"Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day (the Muslim Apocalypse), nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (the Prophet Muhammad), nor acknowledge the religion of Truth (Islam), (even if they are) of the People of the Book (Jews and Christians, The Old and New Testament of The Bible), until they pay the Jizya (head or poll tax, i.e. protection money) with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued."Quran 9:33
"It is He (Allah) Who has sent His Messenger (the Prophet Muhammad) with guidance and the religion of Truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikun (polytheists or pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) hate it." The Muslim concept of the Oneness of Allah is directed against the New Testament Christian doctrine of The Holy Trinity, which states that there are three persons in the one God Yahweh, i.e. God the Father, God the Son or the Word of God (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit. See the Gospel of John 1:1-5 and 20:19-23, and The Acts of the Apostles Chapters One to Two, Matthew 27:50-54, Matthew 18:18, Matthew 16:13-19, and Luke 18:9-14. Christians believe that nothing is impossible with God, as taught in Matthew 19:26, Mark 10:27, and Luke 18:27.Quran 9:73
"O Prophet! (Muhammad) strive hard against the unbelievers (non-Muslims) and the hypocrites (secular, non-fundamentalist Muslims) and be unyielding to them; and their abode is hell, and evil is their destination."Quran 9:123
"O you who believe! (in Islam) Fight those of the unbelievers who are near to you and let them find in you hardness."Quran 25:52
"Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers (non-Muslims), but strive against them with the utmost strenuousness."Quran 47:3-4
"Those who disbelieve (in Islam) follow falsehood, while those who believe (in Islam) follow the truth from their Lord (Allah)... So when you meet (in the fight or in the Jihad/Holy War in Allah's Cause) those who disbelieve, smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly on them (i.e. take them as captives)... If it had been Allah's Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight), in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost."Quran 48:17
"There is no blame for the blind, nor is there blame for the lame, nor is there blame for the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), He (Allah) will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow; (Muslim Heaven) and whoever turns back from war, him will He punish with a painful doom." (Muslim Hell) Jihad or Muslim Holy War does not mean a spiritual struggle against Satan's temptations, but it means a Muslim Holy War, and that is why the blind, lame, and sick are exempted from Jihad, while those Muslims who are physically able to participate in Jihad but refuse to do so will be punished by Allah in Hell.Quran 48:29
"Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard (ruthless) against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves."Quran 61:4
"Surely Allah loves those who fight in His cause."Quran 61:10-12
"He (Allah) it is who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islam) to make it victorious over all religions even though the infdels (non-Muslims) may resist. O you who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a painful torment (Hell). That you believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! (If you do so) He will forgive you your sins, and admit you into Gardens under which rivers flow, and pleasant dwelling in Gardens of 'Adn-Eternity ['Adn (Eden) Paradise], that is indeed the great success."Quran 66:9
"O Prophet! (Muhammad) Strive against the disbelievers (non-Muslims) and the hypocrites (secular, non-fundamentalist Muslims), and be stern with them. Hell will be their home, a hapless journey's end."According to The Blitz e-magazine article What Makes a Jihadist? written by Mateen Elass, and published on the internet on Saturday, April 27, 2019, secular Western analysts of Islamic militancy, because of their religiously non-fundamentalist, agnostic, or atheistic belief systems, can't imagine that religious faith could be a serious motivator for Muslim recruits who join such Jihadist terrorist organizations such as ISIS or Al-Qaeda, even when militant Muslims ascribe their actions to Islam by quoting copiously from the Quran which often offers Heaven as a reward for Jihadists. The mainstream media in the Western World often claims that Muslim recruits to ISIS and Al-Qaeda do so in order to flee poverty, political disenfranchisement, to try and topple politically corrupt regimes, or to escape the dreariness of a meaningless future.
By Ardent Seeker