One of the reasons why the U.S. has remained a close ally with Israel in the post-Cold War years, lies in the fact that Israel is located in a strategic position within the Middle East, where the continents of Eurasia and Africa meet, close to the Suez Canal which links the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. The Israeli Mediterranean Sea Port of Haifa hosts regular visits of the United States Sixth Fleet and Marine Corps, and the U.S. military has prepositioned material in a number of locations throughout Israel. The U.S. military has also conducted a number of joint exercises with the Israeli military on Israeli soil and territorial waters. According to Mitchell G. Bard, Israel is the one nation in the Middle East which the U.S. military could most rely on to provide ready access to its facilities in an emergency. This assertion has some truth to it since the U.S. mostly withdrew its military forces from Saudi Arabia in 2003 at the request of the Saudi government, having been stationed there since the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The U.S. also withdrew all of its troops from Iraq by December 31 2011, after the U.S. government failed in its negotiations to obtain certain extraterritoriality rights for its military personnel from the Iraqi government. Kuwait has refused in the past to allow the U.S. military forces stationed on its soil permission to launch military strikes against those Iranian nuclear facilities suspected of being involved in efforts to obtain a nuclear bomb capability. Bard writes that Israel during the Cold War served as an important bulwark for the U.S.A. in its campaign to check the spread of Soviet influence in such nations as Syria, Egypt, and Iraq, although after the Iranian Islamic fundamentalist revolution of 1979, Iraq served as an ally against Khomeinis Iran during the protracted Iraq-Iran War of 1980-1988. In addition, Egypt after the Yom Kippur War of 1973 broke its relations with the Soviet Union and moved towards friendlier relations with both the U.S.A. and Israel. See The Evolution of Strategic Cooperation in Jewish Virtual Library, by Mitchell G. Bard. Bard has also written that the Americans and Israelis have on several occasions cooperated in the invention and design of high-tech military equipment. Another political commentator by the name of Norman Finkelstein, writing in Counterpunch, summarized the strategic value of Israel for projecting U.S. military power in the Middle East quite well: 'The claim that Israel has become a liability for U.S. "national" interests in the Middle East misses the bigger picture. Sometimes what's most obvious escapes the eye. Israel is the only stable and secure base for projecting U.S. power in this region. Every other country the U.S. relies on might, for all anyone knows, fall out of U.S. control tommorrow. The U.S.A. discovered this to its horror in 1979, after immense investment in the Shah (i.e. Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, overthrown in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalist revolutionaries). On the other hand, Israel was a creation of the West; it's in every respect-culturally, politically, economically-in thrall to the West, notably the U.S. This is true not just at the level of a corrupt leadership, as elsewhere in the Middle East but-what's most important-at the popular level. Israel's pro-American orientation exists not just among Israeli elites but also among the whole population. Come what may in Israel, it's inconceivable that this fundamental orientation will change. Combined with its overwhelming military power, this makes Israel a unique and irreplaceable American asset in the Middle East.' See Norman Finkelstein, "The Israel Lobby," Counterpunch, May 1, 2006, in Israel, the "lobby," and the United States: The watchdog, not the master, by Sherry Wolf, in International Socialist Review, Issue 52, March-April 2007, note 36. 'Former U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig reportedly called Israel "the largest American aircraft carrier in the world." Without it, the U.S. would have to spend additional tens of billions of dollars to police the Middle East with its own troops.' See Israel, the 'lobby," and the United States: The Watchdog, not the master, note 37, Yoram Ettinger, "Two-way Independence," Yediot Aharonot, quoted by Toufic Haddad, "The Reversal of the AUT boycott," Counterpunch.
The book called Code Names by the American military journalist William M. Arkin exposes information about at least five US Army bases at secret locations throughout Israel, including one at Ben Gurion Airport and another in Herzliya Pituah. Arkins book also provides a long list of code names describing joint military operations between Israel and America. Arkin is an independent journalist and military commentator for NBC and a former intelligence analyst for US ground forces. A front-page story in The New York Times, based on one of the books revelations has given the book broad publicity and granted it wide legitimacy. Arkin claims that the officially non-existent War Reserve Stock sites across Israel contain $500 million worth of ammunition the United States keeps in Israel for wartime contingencies. The bases, called Sites 51, 53, 54, 55 and 56 dont appear on any maps and their specific locations are classified and highly sensitive. Its not just munitions, Arkin wrote in the Washington Post before the release of his book. The United States has prepositioned vehicles, military equipment, even a 500-bed hospital, for US Marines, Special Forces, and Air Force fighter and bomber aircraft at least six sites in Israel, all part of what is antiseptically described as US-Israel strategic cooperation. Israel is not the only country in the Middle East to host US military bases, though. There are American military facilities in Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (U.S. troops mostly withdrawn from in 2003), Oman, Yemen, and the Persian Gulf states of Bahrain (headquarters of The United States Fifth Fleet, along with Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean. See United States Fifth Fleet; Diego Garcia), Qatar, Kuwait, and The United Arab Emirates. The late Republican Senator Jesse Helms used to call Israel Americas aircraft carrier in the Middle East, when explaining why the US viewed Israel as such a strategic ally, saying that the military foothold in the region offered by the Jewish State alone justified the military aid that the US grants Israel every year. In addition, the American foreign spy agency, known as the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.), up to a certain extent depends upon Israeli Mossad spies on the ground in the Middle Eastern nations for much of its information pertaining to that region. (See Arutz7 News - January 28, 2004, Top Secret American Military Installations in Israel; American War Reserve Stocks in Israel by Global Security.org; Israel-United States relations).
"In his book Code Names (2005), Arkin writes that some of the American war reserve stock sites in Israel are located at Ben Gurion Airport, Nevatim, the Ovda airbase, and in Herzliya Pituah. Some of the depots are underground, others were built as open hangars. Site 51 holds ammunition and equipment in underground depots. Site 53 is found in the Israeli air-force bases, site 54 is an emergency military hospital near Tel Aviv with 500 beds. Sites 55 and 56 are ammunition depots. A Pentagon study that was publicized in the New York Times in October 1981 stated that military equipment stored in Israel could reach Western Europe and the Persian Gulf quickly. According to the study, the United States could transfer 70 thousand tons of equipment from Israel to Saudi Arabia within several days. A parallel transfer from the Ras Banas port in Egypt would take 10 days; from Oman, 8 days; Somalia, 2 weeks; Kenya, 22 days; Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean, 27 days; and 77 days from the United States. The distances to Europe are shorter but even here, Israel has a relative advantage: the transfer of equipment from Israel to Munich in Germany takes 11 days, from Egypt, 12 days; from Oman and Somalia, 20 days; and from the United States, 24 days. An American expert who visited Israel in the early 1980s told the New York Times that not only Israel was more technologically advanced than the Arab countries, it could also offer better and cheaper maintenance and medical services than the Americans. Natan Sharoni, former head of the Israeli Planning Directorate of the General Staff, told the Americans that in the event of a war in the Persian Gulf, they could send their wounded to American owned military hospitals in Israel instead of to American bases in Germany." (If War Comes, Will US Open Its Military Depots In Israel?, posted August 20, 2012, by Maariv (Israel), via Al-Monitor.com, Author-Sarah Leibovitz-Dar, Translator-Sandy Bloom).
During the Cold War, Israels nuclear arsenal gave it a qualitative military edge and deterrence over any Soviet proxy state in the region, and today its air force has the potential to partially set back Irans potential nuclear weapons programme, as it did before in its air strike against Iraqs nuclear reactor at Osirak in 1981 (Operation Opera/Operation Babylon; Operation Opera: The Israeli Raid on the Osirak Nuclear Reactor (June 7, 1981), Jewish Virtual Library). In 2007, the Israeli air force destroyed in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria a nuclear reactor suspected of being used for nuclear weapons purposes (Operation Orchard (September 6, 2007). The Saudi government has given permission to the Israeli air force to fly over its territory in any military strike against Iran's nuclear facilities, since it fears the Shiite Muslim theocracy of Persian Iran (see NBC News, June 10, 2:05:19 AM ET, Saudis clear Israel to bomb Iran?). Unlike Iran, Saudi Arabia is a theoretically absolute monarchy and a Sunni Arab Muslim country, although it has a large Shiite minority in its eastern provinces along the Persian Gulf, where most of Saudi Arabias petroleum comes from. In addition, Saudi Arabia belongs to the Arabic language family, whereas the Iranian language belongs to the Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. The Aryans originally lived in the prairies and steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas in southern Russia and northern Kazakhstan, and from c.a. 1500 B.C. onwards invaded the lands of what are now Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and Bangladesh, intermarrying in the process with the previous inhabitants of these countries. The higher castes of India according to DNA tests show a larger minority of Indians with some Eastern European paternal ancestry than those of the lower castes. See in Google Search Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations by Michael Bamshad et.al. and The Origin of the Pre-Imperial Iranian Peoples by Dr. Oric Basirov. The Aryan or Iranian tribes who stayed behind in southern Russia and northern Kazakhstan became later on assimilated into either the Slavic language family, which is another branch of the Indo-European language group, or by Turkic and Mongol speakers, members of the Ural-Altaic language family. The whistleblowing website Wikileaks in November 2010 leaked various confidential U.S. diplomatic cables pertaining to the USA and its allies which revealed that Saudi Arabian King Abdullah urged the US to attack Iran to destroy its nuclear weapons programme, describing Iran as a snake whose head should be cut off without any procrastination (Chicago Tribune News, November 29, 2010, WikiLeaks and Iran; The Guardian, Sunday 28 November 2010 20.54 GMT, Ian Black and Simon Tisdall, Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme; Iran-Saudi Arabia relations). Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its first supreme leader, declared that "the concept of monarchy totally contradicts Islam" (Arab-Iran relations). While Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was in power in Iran from 1941-1979, the Iranian and Saudi Arabian absolute monarchies were united against communism and Islamic theocratic fundamentalism, and both nations shared a border with Iraq, which since the overthrow of its monarchy in 1958 had been receiving weapons from the Soviet Union. After the Iranian Islamic revolution of 1979, Saudi Arabia and Iran became bitter rivals for influence and hegemony in the Persian Gulf region (CNN, October 11, 2011, 8:00PM ET, by Michael Rubin, Iran and Saudi Arabia's 'hate-hate' relationship; Ariel Jahner, International Affairs Review. Volume XX, Number 3. Spring 2012, Saudi Arabia and Iran: The Struggle for Power and Influence in the Gulf).
The Arab members of the OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) group retaliated against the American overt strategic airlift, known as Operation Nickel Grass, which delivered weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War of October 6-25 1973, by placing an oil embargo against the U.S.A., which was lifted on March 17, 1974. U.S. President Richard Nixon agreed to send aid and military supplies to Israel on October 12, 1973 in an operation known as Nickel Grass, because the Soviets had already begun their own large resupply operation of Egyptian and Syrian forces by air and sea. Another motive for the American airlift was that Israel was seriously making preparations for the use of its tactical nuclear weapons, which might have brought the Soviet Union directly into the war. During the latter part of the war, the United States put its nuclear forces on DEFCON 3 alert when the Egyptians requested direct Soviet military intervention and the Soviets responded by placing their armed forces in a state of readiness for intervention. The Egyptians requested Soviet help after the Israelis crossed the Suez Canal into their territory. The Soviets since 1971 have had a naval base at the Syrian Mediterranean port of Tartus. See Tartus; Russian naval facility in Tartus-1971; Operation Nickel Grass; Yom Kippur War; The 1973 Yom Kippur War - Jewish Virtual Library, by Mitchell G. Bard; Israel's Nuclear Weapons-Jewish Virtual Library; The Third Temple's Holy of Holies: Israel's Nuclear Weapons by Warner D. Farr, Ltc, U.S. Army, September 1999, note 66, Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy (New York: Random House, 1991), pp.230-231; Nuclear weapons and Israel. At the time of the embargo, some 12% of U.S. oil originated from the Middle East, with the figure for Europe being 80%, and over 90% for Japan. See 1973 oil crisis. Since the embargo, the percentage of U.S. oil which comes from the Middle East has remained steady over the years, being a little more than 10% in 2008. see Obama, Gulf Oil and the Myth of Americas Addiction by Afshin Molavi, New America Foundation, The National, The United Arab Emirates, January 21, 2009; U.S. Middle East Policy and Oil - Jewish Virtual Library. Since the early 1990's onwards, the rapidly growing economies of China and India have come to rely more and more upon Middle Eastern petroleum and natural gas. During the Cold War years, Israel, along with Turkey and Iran during the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, were important bulwarks against the spread of Soviet influence in the Middle East, which by 1970 had taken the form of large scale Soviet shipment of arms to Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. Turkey and Iran during the Cold War shared a border with the Soviet Union, which dissolved in 1991. As a result of the Arab oil embargo against the U.S.A., Japan and those European nations which depended for a larger proportion of their oil from Middle Eastern sources than the U.S. took a more pro-Arab foreign policy, while the U.S.A., being far less dependent on oil from the Middle East, remained firmly committed to its alliance with Israel. Besides the largely Muslim Middle East and North Africa, the foreign sources of U.S. oil imports include such nations as Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, the United Kingdom, Norway, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Nigeria, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Angola, and South Sudan. In 2005, some 36.5% of the oil consumed in the U.S. came from domestic sources. See Ariel Cohen, Ph.D, April 7, 2006, Reducing U.S. Dependence on Middle Eastern Oil, The Heritage Foundation. The U.S. has the potential to produce more petroleum than the oil fields of the Middle East with its reserves of oil shale rock found in the geological Green River Formation, which lies in the states of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. However, at present it is cheaper for the U.S. to rely on crude oil from its own domestic deposits as well as from foreign nations, than to extract oil from its oil shale deposits. Oil can also be extracted from coal and oil sands, but the process of doing so, especially from coal, is expensive.
President Richard Nixon was genuinely surprised by the Arab oil embargo and did not expect it. Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban had told Nixon that the Arabs had no other resource but oil to sell as exports, and Nixon himself said that "oil without a market...does not do a country much good." In the long run, the Arabs were losing oil revenue by placing an embargo on its sale to the United States, and this was one of the reasons why they lifted the embargo on March 17, 1974, despite the fact that the Israelis by this stage continued to hold most of the Arab territory they had captured in the 1967 Six Day War. Today, Israel continues to occupy large areas of the Palestinian West Bank and the Syrian Golan Heights (Nixon Administration Ignores Saudi Warnings, Bringing On Oil Boycott, by Donald Neff, originally published in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, October/November 1997, Pages 70-72). Only Libya, allied to the Soviet Union, did not lift the embargo, although Iraq and Syria, also allied to the Soviet Union at the time, resumed oil sales to the United States. 'Once oil is in a tanker or refinery, there is no controlling its destination. During the 1973 embargo, for instance, OPEC oil (Arab members) that was exported to Europe was simply resold to the United States or ended up displacing non-OPEC oil that was was diverted to the U.S. market...Saudi oil minister Sheik Yamani conceded afterwards that the 1973 embargo "did not imply that we could reduce imports to the United States...the world is really just one market. So the embargo was more symbolic than anything else." In addition, the Arabs in 2002 only controlled 40% of the world oil market as opposed to 70% in 1973 (An Oil Embargo Won't Work|Cato Institute, by Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren, first published in the Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones, Inc., April 10, 2002). Another motive for ending the oil embargo against the United States was that Saudi Arabia's monarchy needed American weapons to protect it from Iraq which was receiving Soviet weapons at the time, and Iraq shares a large border with Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia was staunchly anti-communist during the Cold War. Iraq in 1967 signed an agreement with the Soviet Union to supply the nation with oil in exchange for large-scale access to arms from the Warsaw Pact nations, and in 1972 Iraq and the Soviet Union signed a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, where both countries promised to help each other when under threat and to avoid entering hostile alliances against one another. When Egypt ordered in 1972 the Soviet military personnel to leave it's territory, Iraq and Syria became one of the Soviet Union's closest allies in the Middle East. See Iraq-Russia Relations. During the early 1970's the Iraqi Socialist dictatorship of the Ba'ath Party tried to encircle Saudi Arabia with anti-monarchist political forces. It gave military support to the Communist government of South Yemen to the south of Saudi Arabia, as well as to the socialist opponents of the Saudi-sponsored régime in Noth Yemen to the south east. The socialist Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south of Saudi Arabia also received Iraqi military assistance. After the Iranian Islamist revolution of 1979 and it's threat to export radical Shiite theocracy throughout the Persian Gulf, the Sunni Saudi monarchy supported Saddam Hussein's Iraq after Hussein began his war with Iran in 1980. See Joseph McMillan Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil, Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, January 1, 2006, United States Institute of Peace. The Saudis feared a possible Soviet invasion of Iran and Pakistan after they invaded neighbouring Afghanistan from 1979-1989, and Iran was at war with Soviet allied Iraq from 1980-1988. Iraq was also allied with The United States and Saudi Arabia during its war with Iran in the 1980's. The Iranian Shiite Islamists in the 1980's were hostile both to the atheist Communist Soviets and the pro-Israeli Americans. Today, as previously mentioned, Saudi Arabia needs the protection of the United States from Iran.
The Baghdad Pact of 1955-1979, also known as CENTO (Cental Treaty Organization) or METO (Middle East Treaty Organization), bound the nations of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, The United Kingdom, and The United States into a defensive alliance aimed at the containment of Soviet military influence in the Middle East. See Baghdad Pact. The Soviet Union outflanked the CENTO nations by finding allies in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, South Yemen, Somalia, and Libya. In 1970, there were 20,000 Soviet troops in Egypt, and Soviet naval bases in Syria, Somalia, and South Yemen. CENTO received a blow in 1958 when Iraq's pro-Western Hashemite monarchy was overthrown, and was further weakened when Turkey invaded northern Cyprus in 1974. The organization was terminated in 1979 after the pro-western Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran was overthrown by Islamist fundamentalists led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The creation of the modern state of Israel was in part the result of British imperial concerns during the First World War, when Britain was still largely dependent on Middle Eastern petroleum imports, a dependence which would last until 1975 when a pipeline linking the United Kingdom to its North Sea oil reserves was completed. The long term motives behind the British policy under the Balfour Declaration of 1917 of allowing Jewish immigration into the League of Nations Mandate of Palestine, were to protect the nearby Suez Canal which formed part of the sea lane to the British colony of India, and the use of Palestine as a terminus for the flow of petrolem from Iraq via Jordan, three former Ottoman Turkish provinces which became British League of Nations mandates in the aftermath of The First World War (1914-1918). The oil flowed along a pipeline which ran from the Iraqi city of Kirkuk, through Jordan, and then onto the Palestinian city of Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea. See Palestine During World War I in Jewish Virtual Library. The Mosul (Iraq) to Haifa (Palestine) oil pipeline operated from 1935 to 1948, and unofficially up until 1954. This pipeline supplied much of the petroleum needs for the Allied forces operating in the Middle East, Greece, North Africa, Italy, and southern France during The Second World War (1939-1945) (Mosul-Haifa oil pipeline). Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom supported the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine in 1917 because "it would secure post-war British control of Palestine, which was strategically important as a buffer to Egypt and the Suez Canal" (The Balfour Declaration: its origins and consequences, James Renton, Jewish Quarterly, Spring 2008, Number 209; Balfour Declaration of 1917). Palestine would act as a buffer to British controlled Egypt, separating it from the French League of Nations mandates of Lebanon and Syria, territory formerly ruled by the Ottoman Turkish empire. Palestine also connected Egypt with British controlled Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait. When the Turkish Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria on October 31, 1914 during the First World War, Great Britain viewed the Turks as a threat towards Britain's line of communications with India via the Suez Canal. The British strategy then aimed at forming a land bridge between the British protectorate of Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea and the British protectorates of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, The United Arab Emirates, southern Iran, and Oman in the Persian Gulf region. In order to create this Middle Eastern land bridge, the Ottoman Turkish provinces of Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq would have to be conquered. These Turkish imperial Arab provinces would enable the rapid deployment of British colonial troops to the Persian Gulf, which at the time were the forward line of defence for British interests in India, and which would also serve as protection from an invasion from the north by Russia. This Middle Eastern land bridge would also serve as an alternative to the Suez Canal. After Lloyd George became Prime Minister of Great Bitain in 1916, the British Jewish Legion was formed to assist Field Marshal Edmund Allenby in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of 1915-1918 waged against the Turks. Russian Jews had come to regard the German army as a liberator from the rule of Tsarist and pre-Communist Russia, and the formation of the Jewish Legion was intended to encourage the Jews of the world to participate in The First World War on Britain's side (British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument)). Before the Cold War of 1945-1991, the Soviet Communists occasionally made alliances of temporary mutual convenience with Eastern European Jewry in their struggle against persecution from at first Tsarist Russia and then Nazi Germany. During the Cold War itself, the Soviets allied with the Arabs against the pro-American Jewish state of Israel. From 1968 until the Iranian Islamist revolution of 1979, Europe obtained a large part of its petroleum supply from the Shahs Iran, and part of the route of transportation between Iran and Europe ran along the Trans-Israel pipeline, which is also known as the Tipline. The Tipline connects the Israeli Mediterranean ports of Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Haifa with the Israeli port of Eilat on the Gulf of Aqaba, an inlet of the Red Sea. In 2003, the Russians reached a deal with the Israelis whereby they would supply East Asia with Russian petroleum shipped from the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk via the Tipline (see Trans-Israel Pipeline in Wikipedia; Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company; and EAPC-Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company).
The U.S.A. sometimes used Israel during the Cold War years as a subcontractor of American arms sales, according to Jeff Halper, anthropologist at Ben-Gurion University, coordinator of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, and editor of the Israeli-Palestinian magazine News From Within. Halper says that Israel served as an important conduit to supply American weapons to those nations which during the Cold War had serious human rights violations, and which the U.S. Congress therefore forbade arms sales to. The Israelis would tinker with the American arms imports just enough to pass them off as Israeli arms, and would then resell them to other nations. These nations included such Latin American nations as Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Panama, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s when there were far-right wing military dictatorships battling pro-Communist and other far-left guerrillas and terrorists during the Cold War era. The Israelis also sold weapons to Apartheid South Africa, even when the openly and former pro-Nazi Germany prime minister Balthazar Johannes Vorster was in power from 1966-1978. See On the Israeli Occupation of Palestine, June3, 2004, Tracked on June 4, 2004 4:04 PM in For the Record. In Chile and other South American nations, several Israeli agents were killed when they tried to arrange the extradition of Nazi German war criminals hiding in a camp called Colonia Dignidad, as well as in other places (Villa Baviera). This fact was revealed on December 22, 1992, by lawyer and human-rights activist Dr. Martín Almada, and judge José Agustin Fernández, in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. Fernández was looking for files on a former prisoner. Instead, he found archives describing the fates of thousands of Latin American leftists ranging from Communists to Social Democrats who had been secretly kidnapped, tortured, and killed by the secret services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay when they were under military dictatorships during the Cold War. These files have come to be known as the Archives of Terror (Spanish Archivos del Terror) (Archives of Terror). The kidnapping in Argentina in 1960 of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann by the Israeli spy agency Mossad caused panic in the American C.I.A. and West German B.N.D. foreign espionage agencies. Eichmann during the Holocaust had worked with Nazi colleagues who later on were hired by the Americans and West Germans to spy on Communist sympathizers and suspected spies in Europe, although some of the Nazis later turned out to be double agents working for the Soviet Union. The Soviets themselves had hired many former Nazis to spy on Western German government officials. Eichmann knew too much, and that is why the Americans and West Germans did not try to extradite him from Argentina, even though they knew he was in hiding there, and even though they had a rough idea of the alias name he was hiding under. See Why Israel's Capture of Eichmann Caused Panic at the CIA in The Guardian, by Julian Borger in Washington, Thursday 8 June 2006, 11:47 AEST; and CIA Knew Where Eichmann Was Hiding, Documents Show, The New York Times, by Scott Shane, June 7, 2006. The C.I.A. and certain Vatican clerics who had extremely strong anti-Communist views collaborated after World War Two on occasions in assisting the escape from justice of Nazi and fascist war criminals from former Axis controlled Europe to such South American nations as Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay, Franco's Spain, and the Arab nations of Syria and Egypt (Ratlines (World War II Aftermath) and U.S. Intelligence Involvement with German and Japanese War Criminals After World War II). These escaped Nazi war criminals had worked with American intelligence agencies to provide information on the Soviet Union and would have embarrassed the Americans if brought to trial. Both the American Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) and Simon Wiesenthal have presented evidence of the presence at Colonia Dignidad in Chile of the infamous Nazi concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele, known as the "Angel of Death" (German Todesengel) for his lethal medical experiments on concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust. These war criminals helped in the training of General Augusto Pinochets death squads in the techniques of interrogation and torture of far-left guerrillas. See Kissinger, War Criminals in the Bushes and Henry Kissinger. One of the Nazi war criminals hiding in Chile was Walther Rauff, a former navy officer, who during The Second World War was a member of the German Nazi Party and S.S., and as SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer in the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshaumptamt), was in charge of the manufacture and distribution of gas vans to be used in the extermination of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Communists, Free Masons, the congenitally handicapped and other persons whom the Nazis considered to be undesirable. Walther Rauff may have even have seved as an advisor to the Chilean secret police. Augusto Pinochet himself, who ruled as the military dictator of Chile from 1973-1990, had obvious pro-Nazi sympathies, and he had come to power in an American C.I.A. (indirectly) sponsored military coup against the Communist-led coalition government of Salvador Allende Gossens at a time when the Cold War was still a reality. Another Nazi war criminal, Klaus Barbie, the Butcher of Lyons, served both the C.I.A. and the Bolivian military dictatorships in interrogating and torturing left-wing dissidents, guerrillas, and terrorists as part of the American C.I.A. directed, South American counter-insurgency program known as Operation Condor. Klaus Barbie even bragged about helping the C.I.A. and Bolivian military in the capture and execution of the Communist guerrilla leader Ernesto "Che" Guevara in 1967, who, like Barbie, was also a human rights violator. According to Penny Lernoux, Israel in the late 1970s and early 1980s earned more than $1 billion a year selling weapons to the far-right wing military dictatorships in Argentina, Chile and Brazil. "Thus while (Argentine) Jewish newspaper publisher [and human rights advocate] Jacobo Timerman was being tortured by the Argentine military in cells painted with (Nazi) swastikas, three Israeli generals, including the former armed forces chief of staff, were visiting the (Argentine capital) Buenos Aires on a 'friendly mission' to sell arms." (Penny Lernoux, "Israeli Arms Imperil Vital Latin Friendships" in Israel Shahak, Israel's Global Role: Weapons for Repression (Association of Arab-American University Graduates, Belmont, Massachusetts, 1981), pp.15-16, in Israel: The U.S. Watchdog, note 15, by Lance Selfa, International Socialist Review Issue 4, Spring 1998). The Twentieth Century Latin American military dictatorships had great admiration for the fascist regimes of Salazar's Portugal, Franco's Spain, Mussolini's Italy, and Hitler's Germany, partly because of their own Spanish and Portuguese colonial heritage, and also because of the large numbers of Italian and German immigrants who settled in Latin America. The American use of Israel reminds me of what is written in Daniel 11:34 in the Old Testament: While the killing is going on, Gods people will receive a little help, even though many who join them will do so for selfish reasons. Another reason why the Israelis sold weapons to dictatorial nations was because Palestine, including Israel, the occupied Syrian territory of the Golan Heights, and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, is about 45% desert, when one takes into consideration the Negev Desert in the south. Israel has small mineral resources as well as a limited amount of reasonably well watered farm land, and therefore the money it makes through weapons and munitions exports is quite welcome. The inefficient communist system, which ignored the free enterprise laws of supply and demand, meant that the Soviet Union until its demise in 1991 was seldom if ever self-sufficient in food production, and was dependent on imported wheat from such countries as The United States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia (1). The Communist system, because it ignored the free market laws of supply and demand, meant that Soviet industry regularly produced shortages and surpluses. The shortages led to inflation in real terms via a black market, and the surpluses led to Soviet factories running at a loss and having to be ultimately subsidized by taxpayers (2). Jesus said that nothing is impossible with God, and God can save a rich man who follows the Ten Commandments, according to Matthew 19:16-26, Mark 10:17-27 and Luke 18:18-27. God's grace can save the rich who do not evade their taxes, earn their money legally, invest their money legally, and give generously to charitable causes. The failure of Communism proves that God would not endorse such a politico-economic system, because God is all-wise or omniscient and is not the God of stupidity.
One of the unusual alliances which Israel entered into was with the South African Apartheid régime during the Cold War. The Israelis would sell weapons to South Africa in return for uranium yellowcake which was used for Israel's secret nuclear arsenal and energy program. The Israelis also assisted the South Africans in their nuclear weapons development program, which was abandoned when Apartheid ended in South Africa in 1994. See Israel-South Africa Relations. Many nations had placed an arms embargo on Apartheid South Africa. The Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries or OPEC cartel had placed an oil embargo on both Apartheid South Africa and Zionist Israel. The South Africans as a result of the embargo turned to extracting oil from their coal deposits, a process undertaken by the company Sasol, while the Israelis obtained their oil requirements from the non-Arab members of OPEC. The United States throughout most of the history of Apartheid supported South Africa as a bulwark against the Communist régimes of neighbouring Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola, the latter of which bordered the territory of South African controlled Namibia, which achieved independence in 1990. Republican President Ronald Reagan vetoed an attempt by the U.S. Congress to apply economic sanctions on South Africa, a veto which the U.S. Congress managed to overturn with a two-thirds vote in 1986. See South Africa-Relations with the United States, U.S. Library of Congress. An event filled with sickening irony occurred on April 9, 1976, in Israel. South African Prime Minister Balthazar Johannes Vorster, along with his intelligence chief Hendrik van den Bergh, visited Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem. These two men had served as generals of the Ossewa Brandwag, a militant Afrikaner (i.e. South African Dutch) nationalist organization which openly supported Nazi Germany during World War Two. During the Second World War Vorster and van den Bergh had been detained in a South African government camp. These pro-Nazi Afrikaners held a grudge against the British because of the Boer War of 1899-1902, in which Germany at the time had sympathy for the South African Dutch, and because the racist doctrines of Nazi Germany appealed to them. The small majority of the Dutch South Africans supported Great Britain during World War Two, and most of the British South Africans supported the Allied cause. See The Unspoken Alliance: Israel's Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa, by Sasha Polakow-Suransky, Alex Kane in Mondoweiss Net, on December 6, 2013.
Both the Israelis and Americans have found it necessary at times to avoid the word 'genocide' when speaking of the joint Muslim Turkish-Kurdish-Arabic genocide against the Eastern Orthodox Armenian Christians of 1894-1896 and 1915-1918, in order not to offend Turkey, a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ally. During the Cold War Turkey served as an important ally of the United States against the Soviet Union, i.e. the Communist Russian Empire, and against the pro-Soviet Syrians. The Russians since 1971 have a naval base at the Syrian Mediterranean port of Tartus. Turkey controls both sides of the Bosphorus and Hellespont or Dardanelles Strait and the Sea of Marmara in between, which links the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Aegean Sea, thereby monitoring the movements of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The headquarters of the Russian Black Sea Fleet are in the Russian port of Novorossiysk and the port of Sevastopol in the Crimean Peninsula, the latter of which Russia annexed in 2014 from the Ukraine. The Russians are currently building a bridge across the Strait of Kerch which separates eastern Crimea from The Russian Federation. See Turkey-United States Relations. Since the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991, Turkish relations with the United States have cooled. In 2003, the Turks refused to allow the Americans to use their territory to invade Iraq from the north in case it might embolden the Kurds of northern Iraq, and in the current civil war in Syria and Iraq the Turks have attacked the Kurds who are fighting alongside the Americans against the Islamic State or Daesh Muslim militants, as Turkey fears that American assistance to the Kurds in Iraq and Syria might embolden their own Kurdish population in eastern Turkey to breakaway from the Turkish nation. Their are also Kurds living in Iran. After Turkey invaded the northern Turkish third of Cyprus in 1974, the U.S. Congress passed an arms embargo on Turkey despite two vetoes from President Gerald Ford, although President James Carter managed to have the embargo lifted in 1977. See 1974 Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. The Greeks had first settled in Cyprus around 1200 B.C., while the Turks first began to arrive in the now Turkish peninsula of Anatolia from Turkmenistan in the 1000's A.D. Anatolia had been part of the Greek speaking world beginning in the 1200's B.C., reinforced by the conquests of the Greek southern Macedonian general Alexander the Great in the 330's B.C. Under the East Roman or Greek Byzantine Empire (395-1453 A.D.) the western and southern parts of Turkey were Greek speaking territories, while the eastern and northern parts were Armenian, Georgian and Kurdish speaking lands. The Byzantine inhabitants of Anatolia gradually adopted the Turkish language and Islamic religion of the Mongoloid Turkish military elite in a process of assimilation called Turkification. The Turkish conquest of Anatolia was assisted by recurrent civil wars in the Byzantine Empire, and during civil wars military discipline, training, and drill tends to suffer and the number of experienced troops declines (3). See List of Byzantine Revolts and Civil Wars and Battle of Manzikert 1071 A.D. The warring Byzantine factions often hired Turkish mercenaries to fight alongside their forces (4). The Mongoloid or Ural-Altaic Turkish tactics of using horse archers armed with powerful compound bows also helped them to conquer Anatolia (5). The Latin West Roman Empire (395-476 A.D.) fell for much of the same reasons as the East Roman or Greek Byzantine Empire was to later do, suffering civil wars in it's provinces from 383-388, 392-394, 397-398, 407-411, 413, 421, 423-425, 427, and 432 A.D. The Turks refrained from invading the southern two-thirds of Cyprus because of the presence of British military bases there. Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey are all members of NATO, and the Americans have military bases in all three nations. The Turkish annexation of northern Cyprus in 1974 has some parallels with the division of Ireland into northern and southern regions since 1920, or the French annexation of Corsica in 1768, the latter of which had been a part of the Italian city-state of Genoa-Liguria. The island of Corsica lies closer to Italy than France and is separated by a narrow strait from the Italian island of Sardinia which lies to the south. Ironically enough Cyprus, Corsica, and Ireland are all islands with natural borders. Ronald Reagan was the last American President to call the Turkish crime against the Armenians a genocide. See Here's Why the US Won't Recognize the Armenian Genocide by Jake Flanigan, April 10, 2015, Defense One. Israeli relations with Syria became especially tense after Israel seized the strategically important Golan Heights in the Six Day War of 1967, which is an important source of freshwater for Lake Galilee. In the post-Cold War era Turkey continues to remain a part of NATO, and continues to host American military bases. In the current civil war in Syria and Iraq where the Sunni Muslim Arab fundamentalist rebels known as Daesh, ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria), or ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), is trying to establish a Caliphate based on Sharia law, the Turks support the moderate Sunni Arab Syrian rebels. The Turks do however look with some sympathy upon the efforts by ISIS to crush the Kurds of Syria and Iraq, as Turkey has a large separatist Kurdish population living within it's borders. The Syrians in the past have given support to the Kurds of Turkey. The Kurds are divided by the nations of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The Turks are opposed to the Shiite Alawite Muslim dictatorship of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, who is supported by both the Russians and the Iranian Shiite theocracy. One of the bones of contention between Syria and Turkey dates back to the annexation by Turkey in 1938 of the Sanjak or province of Alexandretta in 1938, which the Turks renamed as the Province of Hatay. The capital of the province is Antioch. This former area of Syria has a coastline with the Mediterranean Sea. When the Turks annexed this part of Syria they expelled the Alawite Shiite Syrian Arabs and Armenian Eastern Orthodox Christians living there, and resettled the area with ethnic Turks. Syria and Lebanon from 1918-1943 was under the control of France as part of the League of Nations mandate territories carved out of the defeated Ottoman Turkish Empire when World War One ended. The French gave way to Turkish pressure in annexing this part of north western Syria in 1938 because they feared the growing military might of Nazi Germany and did not wish to become involved in a two front war with both Germany and Turkey at the same time. Turkey had been an ally of Germany in World War One and was to be a friendly neutral of Nazi Germany for much of World War Two. See Syria-Turkey Relations. The Israelis are opposed to both ISIS and the Syrian dictatorship of Assad, because Assad is a long time supporter of the Shiite Lebanese fundamentalist political party of Hezbollah, and both ISIS and Hezbollah, while enemies of each other, have called for the destruction of Israel. One of the chief reasons why Israel fears to upset the Turks by calling their past atrocities against the Armenians a genocide, despite the fact that the Jews themselves were the victims of Nazi genocide, is due to the fact that Israel currently receives about 40% of it's petroleum supply from Azerbaijan via the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline which passes through Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey, linking the oil fields of the Caspian Sea with the eastern Mediterranean. See Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline and Why Israel Does Not Recognize the Armenian 'Genocide', by Ishaan Tharoor, The Washington Post, April 24, 2015. Another oil pipeline goes from the Azerbaijaini capital of Baku, located on the shores of the Caspian Sea, to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. See Baku-Novorossiysk Pipeline. Turkey supports the Turkic-speaking nation of Azerbaijan in it's dispute with Armenia over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, located inside Azerbaijan. The Russians have been the traditional defenders of the Armenians against the Turks. The Azerbaijanis are mostly Shiite Muslims, while their Turkish cousins belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. The Turks arrived in Turkey from Turkmenistan via Iran in the 1000's A.D., while the Armenians arrived in Armenia from the prairies north of the Black Sea in the 600's B.C. The Kurds, an Iranian speaking people, arrived in Iran around 1500 B.C. from the prairies of southern Russia and eastern Ukraine. Both Armenian and Kurdish are members of the Indo-European language family, while Turkish belongs to the Ural-Altaic language family. Although Kurds are Iranians, they are Sunni Muslims, while most of the rest of the Iranians are Shiite Muslims. The Turks in World War One were allied with Germany against their old Russian rivals, and in World War Two there was a faction of Turkish politicians and military men who wanted to ally with Germany against the Soviet Union, hoping to extend Turkey's boundaries into the Turkic Soviet republics of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Turkey throughout World War Two maintained a friendly "neutrality" with Germany, much as Argentina did at the same time, and Turkish chrome deposits used in making high quality steel were exported to Nazi Germany. The Turkish capital of Istanbul harboured many Nazi German spies. Turkey signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Nazi Germany on June 18, 1941, four days before the Germans launched the invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. Not until late in the war when the defeat of Nazi Germany was assured did Turkey break off diplomatic relations with Germany in August 1944, followed by a declaration of war against Germany in February 1945, although no Turkish troops ever fought in World War Two. See History of the Republic of Turkey. When Adolf Hitler was about to invade Poland in 1939 he asked his generals rhetorically "who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?" To Turkey's credit, many Jews from the Balkans and the Soviet Union found sanctuary in Turkey during The Second World War. The President of Turkey during World War Two, İsmet İnönü, refused to join Nazi Germany in the war against the Communist Soviet Union because he was reluctant to see Turkey suffer as she had done so in the years between 1911-1922 when Turkey was involved at first in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911, then the First Balkan War of 1912, followed by the Second Balkan War of 1913, then the First World War of 1914-1918, followed lastly by the Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922. See Second Cairo Conference of 1943. The Nazis wished to use Turkey as a means of transporting it's troops from the Balkans in order to seize the oil fields of the Middle East, a large portion of which was under British colonial or semi-colonial control at the time. The Nazis also hoped to invade the oil fields of the Middle East by crossing the Caucasus mountains of the Soviet Union which lay to the north, and by advancing from Libya to the west through Egypt and the Suez Canal.
There is an undercurrent of anti-semitism and anti-judaism in Turkey, mainly found in Islamist and ultra-nationalist political parties. The sources of anti-semitism in Turkey have some historical descent from the pro-Nazi Germany factions within segments of the Turkish political and military cliques from the Second World War era. Many of the antisemites in Turkey are a combination of Islamist, Pan-Turkic, and Neo-Ottoman ideologues. See Antisemitism in Turkey. Although Turkey and Israel were allies in the Cold War era, mainly directed against their mutual enemy Syria which was allied with the Communist Soviet Union, as was also Egypt and Iraq, relations between Turkey and Israel have gradually soured in the post-Cold War era. Since 2002 the mildly Islamist Justice and Development Party has ruled Turkey either on it's own or in a coalition. The Turkish initials of the party are AKP, which stands for Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi. This social conservative party stands ideologically for Neo-Ottomanism, conservative democracy, and economic liberalism. The party has been described as "a broad right-wing coalition of Islamists, reformist Islamists, conservatives, nationalists, centre-right, and pro-business groups" by Soner Çagaptay in the article "Popularity Contest-The Implications of Turkey's Local Elections", published on 7 May 2014 in Jane's Islamic Affairs Analyst. It's party leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who since 2003 has been at times the prime minister or president of Turkey, has on occasions made anti-semitic and anti-zionist remarks, some of them justified, i.e. criticism of Israel's policy of building Jewish settlements in the Palestinian West Bank and disproportionate use of force against Palestinian Hamas terrorists in the Gaza Strip. At other times he has made unfair anti-semitic comments drawn from anti-Jewish conspiracy theories. While a university student, Erdoğan acted in a play about a joint Freemason-Communist-Jewish conspiracy aimed at world domination. The far-right, neo-fascist Turkish Nationalist Movement Party, also known as the Nationalist Action Party, has even more stridently spoken in public it's belief in Jewish world domination conspiracy theories. The party's initials in Turkish are MHP, which stands for Miliyetçi Hareket Partisi. The party's ideology stands for Turkish nationalism, Pan-Turkism, right-wing populism, euroscepticism, and ultranationalism. Although the party originally began as a secularist party, since the 1990's it has moved closer in sympathy towards Islamism. The party has strongly opposed the peace negotiations of the AKP with Kurdish separatists, and has criticized the AKP for being corrupt. Nevertheless, the MHP has either openly or covertly helped the AKP in situations such as the 2007 presidential election, in the repeal of the headscarf ban, and in the June-July 2015 parliamentary speaker elections. The MHP also shares in Erdoğan's denial of the Armenian genocide. The MHP's paramilitary wing known as the Grey Wolves (organization), received during the late 1970's covert support from the Turkish military and intelligence organizations, as well as from the American Central Intelligence Agency, in forming death squads which carried out assassinations of far-left, pro-communist Turkish terrorist groups supported by Soviet secret agents in Turkey. Turkey during the 1970's suffered from high inflation alternating with high unemployment, much as Iran also suffered from at the same time before the Iranian Islamist Revolution of 1979. When the Turkish military seized power from the civilian government in 1980, it banned all political parties in Turkey, including the MHP and Grey Wolves, some of whose members were imprisoned for a while. Civilian rule returned to Turkey in 1983. An MHP party member called Agâh Oktay Güner noted that their party's ideology was in power under the military dictatorship while many of it's members were in prison, as were also many Turkish communists at the same time. Both the Turkish military and Grey Wolves were extremely anti-Communist during the Cold War. During the 1991-1994 war between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, the Grey Wolves sent it's members to fight on the Azerbaijani side while the Armenians received help from their old Russian protectors. The Pan-Turkic MHP and Grey Wolves, and the Neo-Ottoman AKP, also worry the Iranians, since they aim to unite the Turkic Azerbaijainis and the Azerbaijani peoples of northwestern Iran, who make up about 16% of Iran's population according to the CIA World Factbook entry for Iran for the year 2012, with Turkey. The Iranians since the end of the Cold War in 1991 have forged close links with the Russians. Before the 1990's, the Iranians had a rivalry with the Russians, and were indeed invaded by the Russians on several occasions in the 1800's and 1900's, both under the rule of the Czars and then under the Communists. The last time Russia occupied Iran was from 1941-1946 in collaboration with the British and Americans during World War Two. Iran seved as a conduit for American and British arms transported from the Middle East for Soviet Russia while it was engaged in a titanic struggle with Nazi Germany. Under the rule of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi from 1941-1979, Iran was against Communist Russia, and under the rule of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from 1979-1989, Iran was against both the United States because it had given support to both the Shah and Israel, and was also against Communist Russia because Islam is against Communist atheism, and because Islamism or Islamic fundamentalism supports heavily government regulated capitalism, i.e. the kind of capitalism which Nazi or National Socialist Germany, Fascist Italy, and militarist Japan supported in the Axis alliance of 1936-1945. See Iran-Russia Relations. The Iranian Islamist theocracy is also quite sympathetic to the anti-semitism that was preached by Nazi Germany, and ironically the anti-Zionism that was espoused by the Communist Soviet Union. Four facts divide Turkey and Iran, and especially since the Iranian Islamist Revolution of 1979. Turkey currently is a multi-party democracy while Iran is an authoritarian theocracy ruled according to Sharia law, with only Islamist political parties allowed to operate legally in Iran. Turkey is mainly Sunni Muslim while Iran is largely Shiite Muslim. The Turkish language belongs to the Ural-Altaic language family while Iranian or Indo-Aryan is a member of the Indo-European language family. When the Turks invaded Turkey from Turkmenistan via Iran in the 1000's A.D. they intermarried with the previous inhabitants, and when the Aryans invaded Iran in the 1500's B.C. from southern Russia and the eastern Ukraine they also intermarried with the previous inhabitants. Turkey is an old rival of Russia, while Iran since the end of the Cold War in 1991 has become an ally of Russia, although it too was once an old rival of Russia.
The Evangelical branch of the Protestants in the United States, who in 2015 made up about 25% of the American population, support the doctrine of Christian Zionism, which states that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ as the Parousia cannot happen until the Jews are restored to the land of Israel in Palestine from their exile in the Diaspora, and when they convert to Christianity en masse, in order to fulfill Biblical prophecy (Matthew 23:37-39, Luke 13:34-35, Matthew 21:42-46, Romans 9-11, Zechariah 12:10, John 19:37, Revelation 1:7, Zechariah 12-14, Ezekiel 38-39, Ezekiel 47-48, Revelation 22, Revelation 4:6). The American Evangelicals tend to vote more for the Republican Party, and less so for the Democrats. They tend to be concentrated in the Bible Belt of the South Eastern United States, which is where the Ku Klux Klan and American Nazi or National Socialist Party has its greatest support. The Ku Klux Klan and their Nazi allies are anti-Black African American, anti-Jewish, anti-Roman Catholic, anti-Communist, and anti-homosexual. They base their beliefs on such biblical passages as I John 2:22-23, I John 4:1-3, The Gospel of John 14:6, Mark 16:15-16, II Thessalonians 2, Revelation 12-13, Revelation 17-18, Galatians 4, Revelation 11:8, Revelation 2:9, Revelation 3:9, Romans 9:6-7, Galatians 3, I Thessalonians 2:14-16, Matthew 27:15-26 (n.b. Luke 23:34), Mark 10:27, Ephesians 2:8-10, Genesis 9:18-29, Genesis 10, I Corinthians 6:9-10, Matthew 10:1-33, Luke 10:1-20, John 19:1-16, and John 8:42-45. Although it is true that the the Romans actually crucified Jesus Christ, they were pagans or polytheists at the time, and they eventually converted to Christianity, unlike the large minority of Jews. It was the unbelieving Jews who chose to set Barabbas rather than Jesus free from crucifixion when given the choice by Pontius Pilate, because they were not convinced that Jesus was the messiah whose coming had been prophesied on a number of occasions in the Old Testament. Christopher J. Probst, author of Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany, (Published by Indiana Press in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2012), a visiting professor of modern European history at Saint Louis University, and a former Charles H. Revson Fellow at the Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, has shown in his book that "a significant number of German theologians and clergy made use of the 1500's writings by Martin Luther on Jews and Judaism to strengthen the racial antisemitism and religious anti-Judaism already present among German Protestants. Drawing attention on major persons, Probst's study shows that a large number of pastors, bishops, and theologians of varying theological and political persuasions used Luther's texts with significant effectiveness in agitating for the creation of a "de-Judaized" version of Christianity. Probst shows that even that part of the Protestant church most critical of Luther's anti-Jewish writings agreed with the antisemitic stereotyping that assisted in justifying early Nazi measures against the Jews." See Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany. Martin Luther in 1543 published a rabidly anti-Jewish, even anti-Semitic theological treatise called On the Jews and Their Lies, some 65,000 words long, in which Luther in a fit of anger even wrote that Christians were at fault for not slaying the Jews. Professor Richard (Dick) Geary, former Professor of Modern History at the University of Nottingham, England, and author of Hitler and Nazism (Routledge 1993), published in the journal History Today (October 1, 1998, vol.48, Issue 10, pages 8-14), an article titled Who voted for the Nazis? (electoral history of the National Socialist German Workers' Party), in which he has shown that the Nazis or National Socialists gained disproportionately more votes from the Protestant than Catholic regions of Germany, in elections held from 1928 to 1932. The Protestants are found mainly in northern and eastern Germany while the Catholics tend to be located in southern and western Germany. Jörg L. Spenkuch and Philipp Tillman in a statistical study called Elite Influence? Religion and the Electoral Success of the Nazis show that after the Catholic bishops of Germany gave up their opposition to Adolf Hitler following the passage of the Enabling Act on March 23, 1933, and the signing of a concordat between Nazi Germany and the Roman Catholic Church on July 20 1933, the Nazis saw a huge increase in votes from the Catholic regions of Germany in elections, plebiscites, and referendums held under the Third Reich. After the Reichskonkordat of July 20 1933, German cities with larger Catholic populations tended to see more attacks on synagogues, more deportations of Jews, and more letters to the official Nazi newspaper known as Der Stürmer. Before the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave Hitler dictatorial powers, and before the signing of the concordat, the Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy in Germany was strongly opposed to both the Nazis and the Communists, while the German Protestant ministry was officially neutral towards the Nazis, although it too was opposed to the Communists. After the German federal election of March 5, 1933, in which the National Socialist German Workers' Party or Nazi Party gained 43.9% of the popular vote, the predominantly Protestant German National People's Party and German Catholic Centre Party formed an anti-Communist, anti-Social Democratic coalition government with the Nazis which lasted until 14 July 1933, when all political parties except the Nazi Party were banned in Germany. The earliest converts to Christianity were Palestinian Jews and Greco-Roman pagans. After the Arab Muslims invaded Palestine in the 630's A.D, the Aramaic and Greek speaking Byzantine Eastern Orthodox Christians in Palestine began to convert increasingly to Islam, and adopted the Arabic language. By the time the British seized control of Palestine from the Ottoman Turks in 1917 during World War One, only a minority of Palestinians were Christians, and even a smaller minority were Jews, the latter located mainly in the region of Galilee. The West Bank hill country also had a minority of Jews of the Samaritan sect. If Islam had never come into existence, it is likely that the Middle East and North Africa would be at least nominally Christian to this day, and therefore the Jewish State of Israel, founded on confiscations from Palestinian Arab Muslims, would never have been created. Today there are Jewish Christians called Hebrew Catholics, Messianic Jews, and Jews for Jesus who believe in Jesus Christ as the Messiah but observe Jewish religious holidays. Many Israeli Jews regard Jewish Christians as traitors to Judaism. The Apostle Saint Paul is mentioned in passing as observing the Jewish religious holidays according to the New King James Version of the Bible (The Acts of the Apostles 18:21, 20:6, 20:16, I Corinthians 16:8, I Corinthians 9:20-21), and Jesus Christ at the Last Supper with His 12 Apostles on the night before His crucifixion observed the Jewish religious holiday of the Passover (Matthew 26:17-25, Mark 14:12-25, Luke 22:1-23, John 13, and I Corinthians 11:23-34). The current position of the Roman Catholic Church is not to actively try to seek the conversion of Israel to Christianity, believing that it will happen in the last days leading up to the Second Coming of Jesus Christ as the Parousia, althought the Baptists believe in missionary campaigns of conversion to the Jews, basing their standpoint on Christ's commission to the apostles to preach and baptize in His name to all the peoples of the Earth (Matthew 28:18-20, Mark 16:15-20, Luke 24:46-49, and The Acts of the Apostles 1:6-8). The Samaritans who live in the former northern, ancient Jewish kingdom of Israel, have been revealed to be of mixed Jewish and Assyrian-Mesopotamian ancestry according to DNA or genetic testing. When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 721 B.C. they deported many of the wealthier Israelites and left behind the poorer Israelites, and the latter group intermarried with subject peoples of the Assyrian Empire who settled in Israel, which after 721 B.C. came to be known as Samaria (Assyrian Captivity or Exile). After the Babylonian Empire became supreme in the ancient Middle East, the southern Jewish Kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians between 597-586 B.C., and again the wealthier Jews were deported while the poorer ones were left behind. After the Babylonians were conquered by the Persian-Iranian Zoroastrians in 539 B.C., the Jews living in exile throughout the former Babylonian imperial provinces were allowed by their new Persian masters to return to Judea if they so wished (Babylonian Captivity or Exile). From 66-136 A.D. the Jews of Roman Palestine fought three failed wars of independence against their Roman masters, and at the end of each war a large part of the Palestinian Jewish population was killed in combat, died of starvation and disease, or were sold into slavery. The Jews who survived in Palestine came to form a minority in their own country, outnumbered by Samaritans, whom the Jews regarded as half-caste Jewish heretics, Greco-Roman pagans or the descendants of Jews who had converted to Greco-Roman paganism, and by Christians, many of whom were converts from Judaism or Greco-Roman paganism (Jewish-Roman Wars). The Jewish minority in Palestine came to be largely concentrated in the Galilee region, where they continued to live until the reestablishment of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948 (Continuous Jewish Presence in the Holy Land (with Maps). After Christianity was declared the official state religion of the Roman Empire in 392 A.D., Greco-Roman paganism entered into a rapid terminal decline towards extinction, especially in the East Roman or Byzantine provinces, and after the Arab Muslim conquest of Palestine in the 630's A.D., many of the Palestinian Jews, Samaritans, and Christians began to convert to Islam in increasing numbers. Some historians believe that the number of Palestinan Jews who died as a result of the Roman-Jewish wars as given by ancient sources were inaccurate exaggerations, as ancient sources often are. The Jews believed in one God, called Yahweh, who was served by a huge number of subordinate angels of various ranks, and who was opposed by a host of fallen, rebellious angels or demons led by the former archangel Satan. The Romans believed in the supreme sky god Jupiter or Diespiter/Deus-Zeus, whom the Roman Emperors claimed to be sons of, and who ruled over many gods and godessess of lower rank who had dethroned an earlier generation of deities known as the Titans. See List of Angels in Theology and List of Theological Demons or Rebel, Fallen Angels. The Jews were influenced by the Persian Zoroastrians when they ruled Palestine from 539-332 B.C. with their concept of an all-good, supreme God called Ahura Mazda (compare with Yahweh), an all-evil god called Angra Mainyu or Ahriman (compare with the archangel Satan), and the war-god Mithras (compare with the archangel Michael, Revelation 12). In 332 B.C., the pagan or polytheist Greek southern Macedonians conquered Persian Palestine. There are nine orders of angels mentioned in both the Old and New Testament of the Bible, and they rank as follows in order of importance from first to last: seraphim, cherubim, thrones, dominations or dominions, virtues, powers, principalities, archangels, and angels. Palestine or Canaan in the ancient world lay on an important intersection of trade or caravan routes of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, linking the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Kush with Phoenicia, Assyria, Babylonia, Sumeria, and Persia. The Fertile Crescent of the Middle East comprised the valleys of the Nile, Jordan, Litani, Orontes, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers, as well as the originally forested mountains, hills, and coastal plains of the Levant. The Levant today consists of the modern nations of Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, and the parts of these nations which face the Mediterranean Sea have subtropical dry climates with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, and are covered with such trees as Cedars of Lebanon and Cypresses on the uncleared parts of hills and mountains. See Via Maris (The Way of the Sea), The Ancient King's Highway, and The Fertile Crescent.
The one communist federation that The United States and Western Europe did support during the Cold War years was Yugoslavia, because it was expelled by the Soviet Union from the Cominform and Informbiro nations of Eastern Europe after its leader Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) refused to follow Stalin's orders on how it should handle its foreign affairs and economic policy (Tito-Stalin Split). The other Eastern European states were firmly under the grip of the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, along with such nations as Egypt and India, belonged to the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), neither part of the American or Soviet bloc of nations, although they were happy to take foreign assistance from both sides of the Cold War. During the Cold War Yugoslavia formed a cheap bulwark for NATO, preventing the Warsaw Pact nations from gaining access to the Adriatic Sea, while at the same time Greece and Turkey blocked a land access to the Aegean Sea. Beginning in 1951, the United States began to supply Yugoslavia with weapons and economic aid (United States gives military and economic aid to communist Yugoslavia (November 14, 1951) in www.history.com; U.S. Mutual Defense Assistance Act of 1949). American relations with Tito's Yugoslavia cooled for a while after Tito gave diplomatic and military support to the Soviet Union when it sided with Syria and Egypt in their war with Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and Tito is alleged to have supported the Palestinian terrorist Abu Nidal, as well as the pro-Palestinian, Communist, Venezuelan terrorist nicknamed Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramírez Sánchez). Tito did however allow the sale of weapons and munitions to many right-wing, anti-Communist Latin American military dictatorships supported by the United States, with the exception being Augusto Pinochet's Chile (Yom Kippur War and Military Dictatorship of Chile (1973-1990)). When the Yugoslav wars of independence began in June 1991, the United Nations Security Council put an arms embargo on Yugoslavia in September 1991, which had little effect on Serbia because it enjoyed the lions share of the federation's weaponry. It also was supplied by the Soviet federation after the arms embargo went into effect, even after the Soviet Union was dissolved in December 1991 (Yugoslav Wars). The U.N. arms embargo on Yugoslavia was poorly enforced, much to the relief of the non-Serb Yugoslavs, and the nations of Bulgaria, Ukraine, Poland, Romania, Russia, North Korea, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Chile sold arms to the warring Yugoslav ethnic groups. The Western nations feared that the wars in Yugoslavia would spread to the other Balkan nations, as they had done so during the two Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, because Yugoslavia had minorities from the nations it bordered with. The First World War had begun in Bosnia-Herzegovina with the assassination of the Archduke of Austria and the heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand, on June 28, 1914, at the hands of Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb nationalist (Balkan Wars of 1912-1913). The Russians at the time supported Serbia, and during the early stages of the 1990's Yugoslav Wars, the West feared that Russia would intervene again on behalf of Serbia. In October 1944 the Soviets liberated the Yugoslav and Serbian capital Belgrade, before withdrawing their forces into Hungary in March 1945 (The Soviet Belgrade Offensive of 1944). The German forces in Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia had begun withdrawing westwards towards Germany and Austria, united since 1938, from late 1944 onwards, ahead of the advancing Soviet Red Army. The Soviet Union had sent it's military to invade Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, and Afghanistan in 1979. The Russians withdrew their occupation forces from Eastern Europe in several stages between 1991-1994.
When President Bill Clinton became President of the United States in 1993, the United States began to send arms to the Croatians and Bosnian Muslims, at first secretly, and then openly from 1995 onwards. The United States, along with the United Kingdom and France, also used their air forces in 1995 against Serbian military targets, thereby thwarting the Serb's attempts to create a Greater Serbia by means of ethnic cleansing. When the Yugoslav Wars began in 1991, the Serbs formed 12% of the population of Croatia, and 32% in Bosnia-Herzegovina, with the Muslim's share being 44%, and the Croat's 20% (Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The Bosnian Muslims trace their ancestry to those Serbs and Croats who converted to Islam when the Ottoman Turks conquered and ruled the Balkans. The rest of the Bosnians were either Montenegrins or Albanians. Some 78% of the population of Croatia were ethnic Croats in 1991, with the rest, apart from the Serbs, being either Hungarians, Italians, Slovenes, or Austrian-Germans. In Serbia, the Serbs formed about 75% of the population, with the rest made up of Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, Bulgarians, Slavic northern Macedonians, Albanians, and Montenegrins. At the height of their power during the 1990's, the Serbs occupied some 33% of the area of Croatia, and 70% of the area of Bosnia-Herzegovina. When the Kosovo War began in late 1998, the ethnic Albanians formed some 90% of the province's population. The Albanians trace their ancestry to the ancient Thraco-Illyrians, while the rest of the population of the former Yugoslavia are Slavic in language and culture, if mostly Albanian in genetic ancestry according to D.N.A. testing. The Slavic warrior elite arrived in the mountainous Balkans in the early 600's A.D. from southern Poland, Slovakia, Czechia, and eastern Germany, imposing their languages on the Thraco-Illyrians. In much the same way it was once thought that the Germanic Anglo-Saxon invaders intermarried little with the inhabitants of Roman England, until D.N.A. testing by Oxford University Professor and geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer proved that most of the English people are of non-Indo-European, prehistoric Basque ancestry, with some descent from the Indo-European Celts, Belgians, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Scandinavians or Vikings, and Normans who arrived later (Myths of British Ancestry). Stephen Oppenheimer published his findings in the book The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story (Constable & Robinson Ltd, London, hardcover 2006, paperback 2007). Bryan Sykes, another Oxford University Professor of Genetics, came to somewhat similar conclusions, as set out in his book Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland (W.W. Norton & Company, New York and London, hardcover 2006, paperback 2007), published in The United Kingdom as Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History. The Romanians trace their ancestry to the Dacians, whom the Romans conquered in the early 100's A.D., because the Romans coveted the valuable gold mines of what is now Romania. The Dacians belonged to the ancient Thracians, linguistic cousins of the Illyrians. The Magyars or Hungarians came to the area that is now Hungary as a horse archer elite from either the western Siberian region of Bashkiria in the 890's A.D., or the tribal lands of the Madjars in Kazakhstan, intermarrying with the previous inhabitants of the Hungarian-Danubian Plain. Before they were conquered by the Hungarians and Ottoman Turks, Croatia and Serbia were independent nations and kingdoms. Yugoslavia, with the Kingdom of Serbia in the driver's seat, did not come into existence until after The First World War ended in 1918, and was dismembered by the Germans, Italians, Hungarians, and Bulgarians during The Second World War from 1941-1945 (World War Two in Yugoslavia), and then existed again for the second time as a Communist federation from 1945-1991, again under Serbian domination, much as Russia dominated the Tsarist Empire and then the communist federation of the Soviet Union from 1917-1991. The Scandinavian Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians were united at various times in their history, before breaking apart as the Yugoslavs and Soviets were to do later.
The United States even for a while, beginning during the presidency of Richard Nixon, supported the Romanian Communists under Nicolae Ceauçescu, who resented Russia's control over a part of the Romanian speaking region of Moldova, gained by the Russians in 1939 as part of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, known also as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Romania under Roman imperial rule was known as the province of Dacia (106-271 A.D.), and the rich Dacian gold mines attracted many Romans to settle in the partly mountainous Romania (Roman Dacia and Trajan's Dacian Wars). Nicolae Ceauçescu extended diplomatic recognition to both the Jewish State of Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization or P.L.O. of Yasir Arafat. For a while the Americans, beginning during the Richard Nixon administration, supported China against Russia, before the Cold War in Europe ended in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Tsarist Russians had seized Chinese territory north of the Amur River and east of the Ussuri River in 1860. Chinese and Russian troops had armed clashes over an island in the frozen Ussuri River in March 1969. In 1966, the Soviet Union signed a mutual defense pact with Mongolia, and the Soviets had military bases in Outer Mongolia until 1992. The Chinese have a province called Inner Mongolia which borders Outer Mongolia. Tsarist Russia had annexed Outer Mongolia in 1913. The Chinese and Soviet Communists had split from each other in the early 1960's when Chairman Mao Zedong accused Russia of becoming soft towards the Capitalist West after Premier Nikita Khrushchev in 1956 announced a policy of peaceful coexistence with the West, a policy which abandoned the attempt to spread the ideology of Communism to other nations by armed force. In 1960 the Russians ended technical assistance to China, and in 1962 the Russians refused to support the Chinese in their border war with India. During the Second Vietnam War of 1957-1975, the Chinese would requisition up to a half of the armaments sent by the Soviet Union to North Vietnam over Chinese railways (Sino-Soviet Split). China fought a brief border war with Vietnam in 1979. Today, Russia has largely abandoned Communist economics, and China and Vietnam with each passing year are becoming increasingly more free enterprise nations, even if politically they remain one-party state dictatorships for the time being. Perhaps as the Chinese and Vietnamese middle class grow, China and Vietnam will become increasingly more ready for a process of gradual democratization, with the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties transforming themselves into center-left or even centrist political parties. Under President Vladimir Putin, Russia remains an imperfect, authoritarian, guided democracy. In international politics there are no permanent friends, and no permanent enemies. If The United States depended on 90% of its petroleum needs from Middle Eastern sources, instead of about 10% as it has now for some decades, and if the Arab Persian Gulf states did not fear at first pro-Soviet Baathist Iraq and then theocratic, post-1979 Islamist Iran, and thereby need American military protection, then the United States would have placed economic sanctions on Israel for its occupation of the Palestinian West Bank and the Syrian Golan Heights. Then again The United States might have militarily seized the Persian Gulf States if it depended on 90% of its petroleum needs from that region. The United States already has military bases in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and to a limited extent since 2003 in Saudi Arabia. The American military occupation of Iraq from 2003-2011, based on as it turned out the false assumption that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction, turned out to be costly in lives and money for The United States. In order to hold permanently the oil and gas fields of the Middle East in the face of public anger over the loss of American lives and taxes which would result from a military occupation, The United States would have to cease being a democracy and would need to become a military dictatorship. Perhaps the world will one day end its dependence on such fossil fuels as petroleum, natural gas, and coal for its energy needs. Currently hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen powered electricity stations (see Hydrogen Economy), and electric cars are in the experimental or early stages of development. Nuclear fusion remains a future possibility, and the electricity generated by nuclear fusion could help to power electric cars. Solar power, wind power, tidal power, hydroelectric power, nuclear fission power, and geothermal power are other sources of energy currently available. The physicist Bernard Cohen in 1983 claimed uranium deposits extracted from sea water can last as long as the sun, especially when used in nuclear fast breeder reactors. Currently uranium extraction from sea water is an expensive process. Thorium deposits, which are three to four times as plentiful as land-based uranium deposits, can also be used in the highly efficient nuclear breeder reactors. Other sources of uranium include uraniferous coal ash, phosphates, shale, granite and sandstone. See Peak Uranium and Nuclear Power. Rare earth metals may one day be mined from the sea bed as land based sources become used up, and these metals are needed for electric cars and hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells. See These Fearsome Robots Will Bring Mining to the Deep Ocean by Kate Baggaley in NBC News February 27, 2017, 10:01 AM ET.
In 2015 42% of global oil production and 73% of the world's proven oil reserves were from the nations which belong to the OPEC or Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In December 2016 66% of OPEC's oil production and reserves were in the 6 Muslim Middle Eastern countries that surround the oil-rich Persian Gulf, or in other words about 48% of the world's proven oil reserves in 2015 were in the nations with a coastline on the Persian Gulf (see OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)). Should ISIS ever gain control of these oil-rich Arab nations of the Persian Gulf it would be necessary for NATO, preferably in cooperation with The United States, to seize control in order to prevent global hyper-infation. The United States sends much of its exports to Europe and Asia, and these two continents depend far more on Middle Eastern oil than the U.S. does. Should the NATO military occupation of the oilfields of the Middle East result in high military casualties, and a voter backlash, it might even be necessary for military dictatorships to take over in the NATO countries. Russia should also militarily re-occupy the oil-rich nations of the Muslim Caucasus and Central Asia should they ever fall into the hands of Islamist theocracies. The United States supports Saudia Arabia despite its dictatorial royal government, lack of religious freedom, and human rights abuses under Sharia law, because it has little real choice but to do so, since Saudi Arabia is the world's largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves. About 25% of the world's oil reserves are in Saudi Arabia. Periodic attempts by the United States government to criticize Saudi Arabia's human rights record are rapidly retracted by Saudi threats to boycott the sale of oil to the United States. The Saudi royal dynasty of Al Saud has promised to supply the United States with relatively cheap oil in return for American military support to help keep them in power. See Arab Lobby in the United States and The Arab Lobby: The Invisible Alliance That Undermines America's Interests in the Middle East by Mitchell Bard. The New Yorker magazine's investigative journalist Seymour Hersh has claimed that the extremist and fundamentalist interpretation of Sunni Islam known as Wahhabism or Salafism favoured by the conservative oil-exporting Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and funded by Saudi petroleum in a phenomenon known as Petro-Islam, amounts to a form of protection money paid by the pro-American Saudi royals to Muslim Fundamentalists who wish to overthrow them in favor of an anti-American, authoritarian, theocratic-republican government, of the type which has ruled Shiite Muslim, non-Arabic Iran since 1979. The ultra-Sunni Arab Muslim fundamentalists of Saudi Arabia tried to overthrow the Saudi monarchy in the Grand Mosque Seizure or seige in Mecca which lasted from 20 December to 4 December 1979, which occurred roughly at the same time as the Shiite Muslim uprising in the oil and gas-rich Al Hasa province of Saudi Arabia, located along the coastal plain which borders the Persian Gulf. The Saudi Shiite Qatif Uprising lasted from 26 November to 3 December 1979. The minority Arab Muslim Shiites of Saudi Arabia had been inspired by the Islamist Iranian Revolution of the Shiite Persians which had taken place from 1-11 February 1979. In Saudi Arabia no political parties exist and in Iran only Islamist political parties are allowed to operate, and all laws passed by the Iranian parliament must receive final approval from high-ranking Shiite clerics whose job it is to ensure that Iranian laws are in conformity with the teachings of the Muslim Bible known as the Koran or Quran, and with the recorded deeds and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad known as the Sunna or Hadith. The high-ranking Sunni clerics of Saudi Arabia also make sure that the laws decreed by the Saudi monarchy are in conformity with the Koran and Sunna. Islamic Sharia law as interpreted by Muslim clerics is based upon the teachings of the Koran and Sunna.
History has shown that wherever the Muslims have become a majority in a nation, Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and polytheists or pagans have often become second and third class citizens, a barely tolerated and often discriminated against and persecuted minority subject to the same harsh, brutal, puritanical Sharia law as applies to Muslims, especially in such Muslim nations as Saudi Arabia and Iran. In Saudi Arabia and Iran, atheists, agnostics, and secular libertines are not tolerated at all (see Rights of Non-Muslims in an Islamic State by Samuel Shahid in Answering Islam Home Page). Sharia law includes such extreme corporal punishment as flogging, stoning to death, beheading, amputation, and crucifixion. The Sunna or Hadith even has accounts of the Prophet Muhammad ordering his opponents to be burnt to death. Both the Koran or Quran and Sunna or Hadith sanction polygamy, slavery, the rape of slaves by their masters, marital rape, honor killings, iconoclasm (Exodus 20:3-6, Deuteronomy 5:7-10, Exodus 25:17-22, Exodus 26:1, Exodus 26:31, Exodus 32, Ezekiel 18, Exodus 22:25, and Deuteronomy 23:20-21), and the second-class treatment of women before Islamic law. Pious, fundamentalist Muslims are assured that in Islamic heaven they will have full sexual access to 72 female virgins, as much drinking of wine as they want, and as much food as they want. Non-Muslim tourists and guest workers should avoid those Muslim nations in which Sharia law is in effect, since their home governments can do little to help them if Muslim judges sentence them under Sharia law. It is even dangerous and risky for a non-Muslim to stop over at an airport in a Sharia law Muslim nation on the way to another country. Only foreign diplomats and foreign workers for Saudi Arabia's royal government-owned petroleum company called Saudi Aramco have immunity from Sharia law, and U.S. military personel stationed in The Middle East are not immune from Sharia law outside their military bases (Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice in Saudi Arabia). The only way for American military personnel to be safe from Sharia law outside their bases in The Middle East is if the U.S. had a massive military presence there, preferably bolstered by other NATO troops, in order to make the Muslim Arabs respect and fear them. One of the reasons why the Americans completely withdrew from Iraq in 2011 to neighbouring Kuwait was because they could not get extraterritorial legal protection for their military personnel. The United States completely withdrew its military forces stationed in Saudi Arabia in 2003, where they had been since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The presence of Western infidels, kaffirs or kufars, non-Muslims, unbelievers in Saudi Arabia had stirred up great hatred among Saudi Arabia's Wahhabi-Salafist, Sunni Muslim fundamentalists, since Saudi Arabia is the home of Islam's two holiest cities of Mecca and Medina. Islam's third holiest city is in Jewish Jerusalem. Many Saudis would like to overthrow their pro-American monarchy and replace it with an Islamist theocracy. ISIS and Al-Qaeda are ultra-Salafists, in other words consistent Salafists. Of the 19 hijackers involved in the September 11 2001 attacks upon The United States, master-minded by the Saudi born and raised Osama bin Laden, 15 of them were Saudi Arabian citizens or ex-citizens. The last Shah of Iran, a secular and pro-American ruler, was overthrown because of a severe economic depression and the disloyalty of his rank and file military, most of whom were closet Shiite Islamists. The same thing could happen in Saudi Arabia if a severe economic depression struck it. U.S. President James Carter refused to sell non-lethal riot control ammunition such as rubber and plastic bullets to the Shah's security forces, non-lethal so long as one does not aim for the head, which meant that the Shah's soldiers had to use deadly live ammunition to disperse rioters, which only further enraged the Iranian masses into paralyzing the nation's economy by means of a general strike, which in turn harmed the wages of the Iranian soldiers. Sometimes security forces have little choice but to use deadly ammunition when rioters swell into a large, uncontrollable, violent mob. The fundamentalist/literalist and jihadist Sunni Muslim ISIS Caliphate, as well as Al-Qaeda, believe Sunni Muslim and Arabic Saudi Arabia does not go far enough when it comes to Islamic fundamentalism, and would like to abolish the Saudi monarchy and aristocracy, which it accuses of indulging in un-Islamic libertinism behind closed doors and of being too friendly towards The United States. The Sunni Muslim Arab absolutist monarchies and aristocratic oligarchies of the oil-rich Persian Gulf nations host American bases in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and The United Arab Emirates, in order to protect them from the Shiite Muslim, Persian fundamentalist theocracy which has ruled Iran since the overthrow of the secular, anti-communist, and pro-American and pro-Israeli Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in 1979. Saudi Arabia fears that the Iranians would try to engineer an uprising among its Shiite Muslim minority which lives in the oil and gas rich Persian Gulf provinces, and Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and The United Arab Emirates also have the same fear. During the Cold War, and before the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the anti-communist Saudi Arabians looked to The United States to support it from the nations of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Southern Yemen, and Afghanistan, which were once socialist nations allied to the Soviet Union, as were also Libya and Algeria. ISIS calls for the complete military withdrawal of American forces from the Middle East, the overthrow of the Arabian absolutist monarchies and aristocratic oligarchies, to be replaced with a world-wide Muslim Caliphate and theocracy, the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction, the destruction of Israel, and the destruction or forcible conversion of what it believes to be the heretical Muslim sects of the Shiites, Alawites, Ismailis, Druzes, and Sufis, not to mention the Yezidis, Mandaeans, Manichaeans, and Bahais. The Muslim Shiites of Iran and Lebanon, in particular the Lebanese Shiite Hezbollah political party, have in turn accused the Sunnis of being heretics, and have also called for the destruction of Israel. Hezbollah, in collaboration with the secular Alawite Shiite, pro-Soviet, socialist Baathist state of Syria and Islamist, Shiite, theocratic Iran, was responsible for the twin suicide truck bombing of the United States Marine Corps and French Chasseur Paratroops barracks in Beirut, Lebanon, on October 23, 1983. The suicide attacks took the lives of 241 American marines, sailors, and soldiers, and 58 French paratroopers. See 1983 Beirut Barracks Bombings. The Americans and French, along with the British and Italians, were part of the Multinational Force in Lebanon Peacekeeping mission (August 25, 1982-March 31, 1984). One of the survivors of that bombing, a certain U.S. Marine Corporal John Chipura, whom information about can be found in Google Search, later lost his life in the Sunni Islamist Al Qaeda's suicide plane bombing of the World Trade Center twin towers on September 11 2001 in New York City, while serving as a firefighter with the New York Fire Fighting Department. Even if the Israeli Jews withdrew their military and civilian settlements to the borders which existed before the 1967 Six Day War, many Muslim fundamentalists would not be happy until all of the Jews were evicted from Palestine, or forcibly converted to Islam, along with the small Christian minorities of various denominations who lie scattered throughout the Middle East since the conquest of a large part of the Byzantine Empire by the Arab Muslims in the 600's and 700's A.D. There are many passages in the Muslim holy books of the Koran or Quran and Sunna or Hadith which are both anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic in nature (see References to Jews in the Koran in The Jewish Virtual Library and Treatment of Jews in Arab/Islamic Countries, Updated September 2011 in The Jewish Virtual Library). There are many similarities and parallels, as well as a history of joint military and diplomatic collaboration, between Islamist fundamentalism and German fascism known as Nazism or National Socialism (See Relations Between Nazi Germany and the Arab world; Religious Views of Adolf Hitler; Religion in Nazi Germany; Martin Luther and Antisemitism; Islamofascism; Jewish Bolshevism; Fascism; Nazism; Islamism). The reason why Israel has many military bases located in the Jordan River Valley in the West Bank, and in the Golan Heights overlooking the freshwater lake known as the Sea of Galilee, is because of its need to secure access to fresh water supplies. ISIS also calls for a sharp increase in the price of petroleum and natural gas exports, and for a complete oil and gas embargo for The United States, unless it pressures Israel into giving up its occupation of the West Bank and Golan Heights by placing economic sanctions on Israel, and also agrees to withdraw its military bases from The Middle East. Since the overthrow of the Gaddafi régime in 2011, Libya has descended into anarchy and civil war, and as a result Islamism has gained strength there, as well as people smugglers who flood Europe with African economic migrants, many of whom are Muslims. In Iraq the Shiite Arab majority has gained power since the overthrow of the secular Saddam régime in 2003, and this development has worried the Sunni Saudi Arabians. There are many fundamentalist Shiite Arab Iraqi militias funded by Shiite but Persian Iran. The Sunni Arab minority of Iraq, who were in power with the help of Iraq's Arab and Aramaic Assyrian Christian minorities during the socialist but secular régime of Saddam Hussein, have turned in droves towards the Islamist ISIS as a result of their loss of power. The Sunni majority of Syria, many of whom support the Islamist ISIS, want to overthrow the secular Alawite Assad dynasty, which during the Cold War was allied to the Soviet Union. The Syrian Alawites find support from the Syrian Christians, Orthodox Shiites, and Druzes, and even some Sunni secularists. In Lebanon, the Syrian Alawites even have the support of some of its Christians and Shiites, some of its Druzes, secular Sunnis, and Alawites living in Lebanon. The Alawites, Druzes and Ismailis are Shiite splinter sects, all of whom are hated intensely by Sunni ISIS. The Druzes live scattered throughout Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel including the occupied territories. The Iranian but Sunni Kurds, unlike the vast majority of Iranians in Iran proper who are Shiites, are hated by ISIS for not being Arabs, and for not being fundamentalist Muslims. The Kurds are also hated by the governments of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria who do not want to see a unified and independent Kurdistan, since the Kurds live in all four nations. Both the Islamist Sunni ISIS and Islamist Shiite Hezbollah, although hating each other, would like to destroy the Jewish state of Israel, and the Syrian government wishes to regain the Golan Heights lost in the 1967 Six Day War, when Israel fought then Soviet-backed Syria and Egypt. The Arab world is an unstable and volatile series of tribal chiefdoms, ethnic groups, and religious sects. As Libya, Somalia, Yemen, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, and Egypt have shown, attempts to impose Western secular democracy on Muslim Arab nations all too often results in either anarchic failed states or anti-Western Islamist theocracies. Past Muslim caliphates sooner or later fragmented into warring, feuding, mutually hostile emirates and sheikdoms. Only strong, authoritarian, pro-Western and preferably secular governments can rule the Muslim world in the long run. The Muslim world would have to cease being Muslim for secular Western democracy to stand a chance of success in their countries. The borders of the Muslim Middle East and North Africa are the artificial creations of past British, French, Spanish and Italian colonizers. Should Shiite, theocratic Iran acquire nuclear weapons, it would probably use them against Sunni Saudi Arabia and Jewish Israel, and Israel in return would retaliate with its nuclear arsenal. Should Sunni Pakistan become an Islamist theocracy, it would probably launch a nuclear stike against Shiite Iran, Jewish Israel, and Hindu India, and if Saudi Arabia gained nuclear weapons, and fell into the hands of ISIS, it would probably attack both Iran and Israel. If nuclear weapons struck oil fields, the burning black smoke emitted by the oil fields would pump radioactive pollution into the atmosphere, and the world price of oil would skyrocket. The nuclear doctrine of deterrence known as M.A.D. or mutually assured destruction would not frighten Islamist theocracies from using nuclear weapons, since they believe it would hasten the coming of the Mahdi and the end of days which lead to the Last Judgment of Allah. See Islamic Eschatology. The reason why Saddam Hussein refused to reveal that he had no weapons of mass destruction before the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003, was because he did not wish to have Iraq appear militarily weak before Iran. Iraq fought a long war with Iran from 1980-1988. Saddam Hussein also said he had no wish to form an alliance with Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda terrorist organization because he regarded Osama the Muslim fundamentalist to be opposed to his secular, socialist Iraqi Baathist state, and who therefore could have ended up eventually turning on him. See Saddam Hussein Told of Fearing Iran More Than U.S. in The New York Times by Scott Shane, July 2, 2009, Saddam Hussein Said WMD Talk Helped Him Look Strong to Iran by Glenn Kessler, Washington Post Staff Writer, Thursday, July 2, 2009 and FBI Files: Saddam Feared Iran More Than U.S. by James Gordon Meek, Daily News Washington Bureau, Wednesday, June 24, 2009, 4:59 PM. The Republican administration of George Bush junior refused to listen to doubts expressed by the Central Intelligence Agency or C.I.A. that Saddam Hussein's Iraq still had weapons of mass destruction in 2001-2003, or even contacts of a serious nature with Al Qaeda, a case of the lions of the C.I.A. led by the donkeys of the cabinet of the George Bush junior presidency.
All Muslims should technically be fundamentalists or literalists, since it is a core tenet of Muslim belief that the Muslim Bible known as the Koran or Quran is the recording of the literal words of Allah (God) as relayed to The Prophet Muhammad in a series of dreams by the Archangel Gabriel. They also believe that the Sunna or Hadith, which is the recorded deeds and words of the Prophet Muhammad, to be divinely inspired and historically factual. Many passages in the Koran and Sunna call for Muslims to keep fighting a Jihad or Holy War until the whole world submits and converts to Islam. History has shown that Muslim expansion has only stopped when it has run up against a superior military force (Why 'Moderate Islam' is an Oxymoron by Raymond Ibrahim, 03/26/2014, CBN News). The harsh, brutal, puritancial Muslim Sharia law is based on the Koran and Sunna. Muhammad believed himself to be the last in a line of prophets sent by God which included such persons as Abraham, Moses, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Ezra, Daniel, Elijah, John the Baptist, and Jesus Christ, and Muslims believe that Islam is the fulfillment of Judaism and Christianity. Islamists forbid not only Muslims, but even non-Muslims, from challenging the literal factual truth of the Koran and Sunna on pain of death, as Salman Rushdie's publishers and the journalists of the Charlie Hebdo newspaper found out the hard way. The ancient religion of Persia or Iran known as Zoroastrianism had a great influence on Judaism when Palestine was a province of the Persian Empire from 539-332 B.C., and many of the books of the Old Testament were first written or re-edited during this period (see Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity by Hannah M.G. Shapero, 9/6/1997). Emperor or Shah Cyrus the Great allowed the Jews to return from their captivity during the period of the Babylonian Exile, after the Persians had conquered the Babylonian Empire, and the three wise men or magi who visited the Christ Child were Zoroastrian priests. Under Muslim rule polytheists or pagans are forced to convert to Islam, while Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, as precribed in the Koran, are forced to pay a heavy poll tax or protection money known as the Jizya in order to pressure them to convert to Islam. Muslims believe that Islam is the only really true and perfect religion on Earth. According to the Koran and Sunna it is the duty of Muslims to try to convert non-Muslims to Islam, but Muslims who convert to another religion or to no religion at all should be executed if they refuse to return to Islam, and so should non-Muslims who try to convert Muslims to another religion (see Myths of Islam by TROP or The Religion of Peace.Com, 'Religion of Peace' Is Not A Harmless Platitude by Douglas Murray, The Spectator, 17 January 2015, 9:00 AM, Do Islam and the West Share the 'Same Values'?" by Raymond Ibrahim, Frontpage Mag, September 30, 2016, The Moderate Muslim Majority Myth-What Exactly is the Litmus Test For "Moderation"? byWilliam Kilpatrick, Frontpage Mag, October 17, 2016). Muslim fundamentalists believe that all non-Muslims automatically go to hell, as do also non-fundamentalist and heretical Muslims, and so are therefore not innocent persons who can as a result be killed with impunity in terrorist attacks should the need arise in the cause for the defence or expansion of Islam. The Koran goes from peaceful and tolerant passages in its early chapters to bloody and violent ones in the later chapters, and there are also violent and intolerant verses in the Sunna. The later chapters of the Koran overrule and abrogate the earlier ones. In the last ten years of the life of the Prophet Muhammad, and the one hundred years following his death, Islam spread from the Arabian Peninsula as far west as Spain and as far east as India and Central Asia through aggressive warfare and deliberate campaigns of conquest. So long as there are Muslim minorities in the nations of the secular Western world, and so long as these nations are involved in the wars and state politics of Muslim nations, and prevent the coming to power of Islamist theocracies, and so long as they do not put economic sanctions on Israel because of is semi-apartheid policy of building Jewish settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights, the Western World will always be targeted by Muslim jihadists, either operating as part of underground terrorist cells or as unpredictable lone wolves. The only truly way to be safe from such attacks, at least while the West is involved in wars in the Muslim world, is to have absolutely no Muslims on their soil, either as citizens, permanent residents, tourists, and diplomats. Having Muslim minorities in Western nations is like playing Russian roulette, where the gambler may get lucky many times in a row, but is certain to get unlucky if he or she keeps playing long enough. The day the world finds cheap alternatives to Arab oil and gas is a day when Muslim terrorists will become irrelevant. If current population trends continue, there will come a day in the future when the Jews in Israel, including the West Bank and the Golan Heights, will be outnumbered by Arab Muslims, Christians, Druze, and Jewish Christians such as Hebrew Catholics, Messianic Jews and Jews for Jesus, which makes Israel's West Bank Wall all the more necessary. The Jews in Israel/Palestine will then form a besieged minority as did the Caucasians, Khoisans, mixed-race Coloreds, and Asians of the majority Bantu South Africans during the Apartheid years. So long as Jewish Israel refuses to allow the creation of an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank, and refuses to withdraw its Jewish settlers there, Israel will always live with the fear and reality of terrorism committed against Jews by Palestinian Muslim terrorists.
The petroleum and natural gas rich nations of the Muslim Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia should try to diversify their economies for the future time when cheap energy alternatives are found to replace their primary exports, especially as oil and gas eventually becomes more scarce. Many of the largely desert Arab Muslim nations need to invest in water-from-the-sea desalination plants and pipelines as their underground fresh water supplies become used up by their growing populations. Not only is water vital for drinking, bathing, washing, cooking, and agriculture, but also for industry. Should they not take the necessary steps, then the over-populated Arab Muslim desert nations will face a major economic depression, and many of them will become economic refugees seeking to invade Europe by means of uncontrolled migration. Such a phenomenon will put a masive strain on the European economy, and will lead to the rise of far-right political parties as Caucasian Christian and secular Europeans become scared that they will become a minority in their own continent. The only way to really deter such an invasion of Europe by Muslim economic refugees would be through systematic genocide of the refugees/invaders, and military dictatorships would arise in Europe because apart from some ultra far-right political parties, the mainstream democratic political parties of Europe would not have the stomach for such a task when extreme necessity arises. Some of the center-left wing, centrist, and even center-right political parties of Europe might even try to stave off a far-right wing voter landslide by making the Muslim refugees/invaders voting citizens and members of the armed forces and police, but this might only result in a wave of military coups or putsches throughout Europe in reaction. If China becomes as wealthy as Japan, the wave of Muslim refugees might even try to forcibly invade China via the former Soviet Central Asian republics. There has been no ethnic group, tribe, and culture throughout history that has not tried to resist invasion, whether it be on a small, medium, or large scale. The indigenous peoples of Canada, The United States of America, Australia, and New Zealand, all of which were once former colonies of Great Britain, put up a valiant but futile resistance against overwhelming numbers and modern weapons. History should not be allowed to repeat itself. If Caucasians allow themselves to become a minority, through uncontrolled migration/invasion, in Europe, North America, Australasia, and in Argentina and Uruguay, they will become the laughing stock of the non-Caucasian world, especially of the far more ethnically and racially homogenous nations of China and Japan. Tribalism, ethnocentrism, and racism is a human genetic instinct which can only be controlled and managed in good times, and which all too often in bad times spins out of control, especially during times of run-away hyperinflation or extreme unemployment, as was the case in Weimar Germany from 1919-1933. The Western provinces of the Roman Empire fell through a combination of civil wars and barbarian invasions happening all at one and the same time, while the more unified eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire, survived longer, before it too later on fell to a combination of civil wars and external invasion. The western provinces of the Roman Empire had civil wars from 383-388, 392-394, 397-398, 407-411, 413, 421, 423-425, 427, and 432 A.D, and one of the reasons why the Byzantines became an easy prey to the Turks, many of whom were the descendants of Greeks and Armenians who had learnt the Turkish language and converted to Islam, was because there were four major and protracted civil wars in the Byzantine Empire during the 1300's A.D, not to mention those that occurred in the empire from roughly 1025-1300 A.D. In times of civil war, the level of drill, training, and discipline went out of the window for the Roman and Byzantine military forces, with rival factions even collaborating with the barbarian and Turkish invaders, many of whom were part of both the rank and file and the officer corps of the Roman and Byzantine militaries. In the many battles of the civil wars fought by the late Roman and Byzantine armies, the highly experienced veterans were killed and replaced by inexperienced conscripts and untrustworthy barbarians and Turks. The wages of the Late Roman armies were worth less in real terms than that paid to earlier generations of Roman soldiers (See Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West: The Slow Death of the Roman Superpower, United Kingdom (2009), published in The United States under the title of How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower and Adrian Goldsworthy In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire, United Kingdom (2003), Roger Collins, Early Medieval Europe: 300-1000, (1st ed. 1991, 2nd ed. 1999, 3rd ed. 2010), United Kingdom).
The NATO members, not including a now unreliable United States, should have a nuclear triad arsenal and conventional military force at least equal to that of Russia as a credible force of deterrence. If Ukraine had not given up their nuclear arsenal to Russia in 1994, as did also Belarus and Kazakhstan, it is unlikey that the Russians would have dared to retake by armed force the Crimea and Donbass in 2014 from Ukraine. Those who are complacent about the future often live to regret it, or at least their descendants do. NATO should also militarily occupy Libya in order to restore law and order to that anarchic, fragmented country and thereby stop the people smugglers who flood Europe with African economic migrants, many of whom are Muslims. NATO should also keep up friendly relations with Turkey in order to stop the flood of refugees from the mostly Muslim Middle East who use the Balkan route. Social security, citizenship, emergency relief, and cheap labour given to economic migrants and war refugees only encourages others to keep invading Europe. If the American President at any given time is foolish enough to give Russia and China the green light to invade and take over Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, it might even be necessary for the American military to overthrow him in a military coup and rule in the interim as a military dictatorship before a return to civilian rule. During this interim it could establish secure borders to prevent an uncontrolled influx of refugees/invaders, as well as close vetting of would-be Muslim immigrants, and then replace the gerrymander of the electoral college system with either the first-past-the-post voting method, or the preferential or alternative vote counting method as is practiced in Australia. It also might replace the American republican system of government with the Westminster system of government as is practiced in Australia and Canada, in order to avoid gridlock and lame duck administrations which arise when different political parties control the Presidency and Congress simultaneously. The proportional representation method of vote counting too often results in short-lived, unstable, ineffectual and indecisive governments, as is most notoriously the case in Italy.
(1). Robert O. Paxton, Europe in the Twentieth Century, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A., Second Edition, Updated Printing, 1991, pages 599 and 642.
(2). William G. Dewald, Capitalism, in The World Book Encyclopedia, Volume C-ch, No.3, 1987, page 157, Chicago, U.S.A.
(3). Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West: The Slow Death of the Roman Superpower, Paperback Edition published in 2010 by Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books Ltd, London, United Kingdom, pages 91, 110, 119, 120, 141-142, 15-153, 205, 212-213, 210 and 260, 282, 315, 322-323, and 409. Adrian Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire, Paperback Edition published in 2004 by Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books Ltd, London, United Kingdom, pages 177, 407, and 423-424. Roger Collins, Early Medieval Europe: 300-1000, The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, United Kingdom 1991, pages 44 and 89-90.
(4). Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, pages 121, 214, 296, 299-300, 303-304, 307, 310-331, 336, 347, 356, 359-360, 372.
(5). Adrian Goldsworthy, The Fall of the West, pages 317-319.
By Ardent Seeker